what is the FIRST line of defense against tissue injury and disease producing microorganisms?
IMMUNE response occurs AFTER the __________ response. needed for COMPLETE _________
what is the difference btw inflammatory response and immune response?
immune response can REMEMBER and RESPOND MORE QUICKLY to a foreign substance encountered 2 or more times!
which WBC's are the MAIN part of IMMUNE response?
MOST antigens are _________
what do antigens include? (3)
microorganisms (+by products)
transformed human cells (tumors/viruses)
human tissue (organ trans, graft or incomp. blood)
with AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE, a persons own body sees part of itself as an __________
name the 4 cells involved in the immune response
1. B lymphocytes
2. T lymphocytes
3. Natural killer (NK)
which lymphocytes are acquired immunity?
which lymphocytes make plasma cells and are acquired?
which cells are innate immunity (automatic) and act against viruses and cancer cells?
macrophages are ________ (natural)
natural killer cells are __________ (WBC's)
which cells are lymphocytes, have innate immunity (not involved with acquired), in the microcirculation, and active against viruses and cancer cells?
what is the abnormal function of NK cells?
when they are against several immunodeficiency syndromes
which WBC's are able to RECOGNIZE and RESPOND to an antigen?
lymphocytes are derived from a _______ _______ in the bone marrow
lymphocytes make up ___-___% of the entire WBC population
lymphocytes are antigen-________, ________ lived, and ________
t/f different types of lymphocytes all do the same thing
FALSE! different ones do different things (imagine that!)
t/f B lymphocytes go through the thymus
FALSE! THEY DO NOT!!!!
what are the two main types of lymphocytes?
where does an NK cell come from?
the bone marrow
NK cells are part of the bodies ______ immunity, they _______ cells that are recognized as foreign
nk cells function in the ______ phases of the immune response (unknown)
t/f macrophages are involved in the immune response
what do plasma cells produce?
what cell gives response to the antigen?
what is another term for antibodies?
immunoglobulins (hence: Ig's)
where are Igs carried?
in the bloodstream
name the 5 different ANTIBODIES (hint Ig's)
which two antibodies activate the B lymphocytes?
IgM and IgD
____ = major Ab in blood serum (1st passive immunity of a newborn)
____= hypersensitivity; binds to mast cell (histamine) this one will cause anaphylaxis, asthma
____= serous (blood) and secretory (saliva) defends against proliferation of microorganisms in the BODY
the level specific antibody in the blood is what?
immune complex = when an ______ combines with a __________
T lymphocytes travel to the ______ (major organ of lymphoid development) to mature
what are the two different T lymphocytes with different jobs?
t-helper cells (helps B-cells)
t-helper cells _______ the function of b-cells
t-helper cells ________ the antibody response
"T" is for terrific!
which cells suppress the function of b lymphocytes?
which cells are active in surveillance against virally infected or tumor cells?
t/f macrophages are in microcirculation
FALSE!!!!!!! no they ain't
what live in the CT during inflammation?
what help out the b and t cells?
what do macrophages do for lymphocytes?
process the antigen cell
once the lymphocytes are stimulated, where do they go?
leave lymphoid tissue and travel to the site of injury
____________ SERVE AS THE LINK BETWEEN THE INFLAMMATORY AND IMMUNE RESPONSE
macrophages are the link between what?
inflammatory and immune response
t/f macrophages have the capacity to remember
sorry, afraid not
t/f macrophages need reactivation during each encounter of foreign objects
true! they gots the alzheimers
which lymphocytes make plasma cells and the plasma cells make antibodies?
which cells HELP enhance the antibody and the SUPPRESSORS turn off the b cells?
t lymphocytes (t-helpers, t-suppressors)
which cells link inflammation and immunity and amplify the immune response?
which cells are in microcirculation, innate immunity, and attack viruses and cancer cells?
what are the four bone marrow white blood cells?
monocytes are _______ nucleated and macrophages are _________ nucleated
neutrophils are _________ nucleated
where do the neutrophils, monocytes, b cells, and t cells come from?
bone marrow-stem cell
immunoglobulins are made from _______ cells
which cells make the antibodies?
which cells make the plasma cells?
which cells make the blast, memory, helper, suppressor, and killer?
________ are proteins made by cells of the immune system
cytokines play a role in _________ btw lymphocytes and other immune system
__________ are cytokines produced by b an t cells
________ are cytokines produced by macrophages
__________ is produced by t cells and macrophages (antiviral)
__________ induce directed chemotaxis in responsive cells
cytokines ______ macrophages to enhance ability to destroy foreign cells
what are the two MAJOR divisions of the immune response?
which response is antibody production?
what are the PRIMARY cells in the humoral response?
B cells (remember? B Funny)
what response protects against bacteria/viruses?
which response has lymphocytes working alone?
which are the PRIMARY cells in the cell mediated response
which response regulates the other response?
Cell-mediated regulates the humoral response
________= increased responsiveness as a result of memory
name the two types of immunity
what is the acquired ACTIVE immunity?
what is the Natural ACTIVE immunity?
what is the Acquired PASSIVE immunity?
antibodies injected (interferon)
what is the Natural PASSIVE immunity?
mother to fetus (from placenta)
vaccine = ________
what is the study of the immune reactions involved in disease?
what does the immune response help defend the body against? what does malfunction do?
attacks the individual
IMMEDIATE allergic rxn = type ____ hypersensitivity
IgE (__________) mediated
mast cells release _________
EDEMA increases _______ and permeability of the BV. it also __________ smooth muscles in bronchiols
anaphylaxis is a type ___ rxn
I (ie: asthma)
type I hypersensitivity = allergen ---> _______ cell ---->IgE (antibody) ----> histamine ----> _______ ---->anaphylaxis
type II hypersensitivity is ______
when an antibody combines with an antigen bound to the surface of the tissue cell (RBC), it is type ___
IgG and IgM (humoral)= type ____
type I, II, and III are all ________ responses
type III hypersensitivity is formed btw microorganisms and _________ in the circulating blood
deposition of the complexes leaving the blood in type III hypersensitivity result in initiation of ________ _________ _______
acute inflammatory response
________ are attracted to tissues in type III hypersensitivity
__________ and _________ death release lysosomal enzymes in type III hypersensitivity
phagocytosis and neutrophil death
type III hypersensitivity has tissue ______
which type of hypersensitivity can lead to autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus?
type ____ is cell-mediated, delayed
which type of hypersensitivity is cell-mediated, not humoral?
_____ cells KNOW the antigen causes damage to tissue cells themselves
which route of administration is worse, it can go systemic?
t/f pt's with an infection are more likely to have an allergic response
pt's with multiple allergies/autoimmune disease have a high _______ with epi
allergenicity (more in adults)
__________ are less likely to have problems than _________ with type IV hypersensitivity
contact dermatitis or mucositis is an example of type _____ hypersensitivity
t/f all four types of hypersensitivity are involved in drug hypersensitivity
what type of hypersensitivity to drugs is hemolytic anemia?
what type of hypersensitivity to drugs is serum sickness?
what type of hypersensitivity to drugs is anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema?
when the immune system learns difference between self and foreign (during embryologic development)
autoimmune disease is also known as what?
connective tissue diseases
congenital is at _______
and acquired is development after ______