rad8

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A shoulder was imaged using 300 mA, 7 ms, 70 kVp, 40-inch SID, 1.2-mm focal spot, and 100 speed screen/film combination. Which of the following changes, made to compensate for changes in optical density, would result in decreased production/visualization of blur?
1. Use of a 0.6-mm focal spot
2. Use of a 50-inch SID
3. Screens with higher intensification factor

B.
1 and 2 only

The term used to describe the gradual decrease in exposure rate as an x-ray beam passes through matter is
A.
attenuation.
B.
absorption.
C.
scattered radiation.
D.
secondary radiation.

A.
attenuation.

Which of the following is (are) demonstrated in the AP projection of the cervical spine?
1. Intervertebral disk spaces
2. C3-7 cervical bodies
3. Apophyseal joints

1,2

Base-plus fog is a result of
1. blue-tinted film base.
2. chemical development.
3. the manufacturing process.

1,2,3

Which of the following is (are) well demonstrated in the oblique position of the cervical vertebrae?
1. Intervertebral foramina
2. Disk spaces
3. Apophyseal joints

1only

The patient positioned for a T-tube cholangiography is in a
A.
15° to 20° LPO.
B.
15° to 20° RPO.
C.
45° LPO.
D.
45° RPO.

B.
15° to 20° RPO

Which of the following can impact the visibility of the anode heel effect?
1. SID
2. Image recorder size
3. Screen speed

1,2

Capacitor discharge mobile x-ray units
1. use a grid-controlled x-ray tube.
2. are typically charged before the day's work.
3. provide a direct current output

1,3

The device used to give a film a predetermined exposure in order to test its response to processing is called the
A.
sensitometer.
B.
densitometer.
C.
step wedge.
D.
spinning top

A.
sensitometer

All of the following are related to recorded detail except
A.
mA.
B.
focal spot size.
C.
screen speed.
D.
OID.

A.
mA.

If 300 mA has been selected for a particular exposure, what exposure time would be required to produce 60 mAs?
A.
1/60 second
B.
1/30 second
C.
1/10 second
D.
1/5 second

D.
1/5 second

All of the following statements regarding the bony thorax are true, except
A.
the first seven pairs of ribs are referred to as vertebrosternal, or true ribs.
B.
the only articulation between the thorax and the upper extremity is the sternoclavicular joint.
C.
the gladiolus is the upper part of the sternum and is quadrilateral in shape.
D.
the anterior ends of the ribs are about 4 inches below the level of the vertebral ends.

C.
the gladiolus is the upper part of the sternum and is quadrilateral in shape.

Which of the following is (are) causes of grid cutoff when using reciprocating grids?
1. Inadequate SID
2. X-ray tube off-center with the long axis of the lead strips
3. Angling the beam in the direction of the lead strips

1 only

The image intensifier's input phosphor differs from the output phosphor in that the input phosphor
A.
is much larger than the output phosphor.
B.
emits electrons whereas the output phosphor emits light photons.
C.
absorbs electrons whereas the output phosphor absorbs light photons.
D.
is a fixed size, and the size of the output phosphor can vary.

A.
is much larger than the output phosphor

An increase in kilovoltage will serve to
A.
produce a longer scale of contrast.
B.
produce a shorter scale of contrast.
C.
decrease the radiographic density.
D.
decrease the production of scattered radiation.

A.
produce a longer scale of contrast

The purpose of filters in a film badge is
A.
to eliminate harmful rays.
B.
to measure radiation quality.
C.
to prevent exposure by alpha particles.
D.
as a support for the film contained within.

B.
to measure radiation quality.

When green-sensitive rare earth screens are properly matched with the correct film, what type of safelight should be used in the darkroom?
A.
Wratten 6B
B.
GBX
C.
Amber
D.
None

B.
GBX

Which of the following pathologic conditions are considered additive conditions with respect to selection of exposure factors?
1. Osteoma
2. Bronchiectasis
3. Pneumonia

1,2,3

If a 4-inch collimated field is changed to a 14-inch collimated field, with no other changes, the radiographic image will possess
A.
more density.
B.
less density.
C.
more detail.
D.
less detail.

A.
more density

What is the name of the device that functions to expose a film with an optical step wedge having a number of densities ranging from white to black?
A.
Densitometer
B.
Sensitometer
C.
Penetrometer
D.
Potentiometer

B.
Sensitometer

Which of the following devices is (are) component(s) of a typical fluoroscopic video display system?
1. Videotape recorder
2. TV camera
3. TV monitor

2,3

If the developer temperature in the automatic processor is higher than normal, what will be the effect on the finished radiograph?
1. Loss of contrast
2. Increased density
3. Wet, tacky films

1. Loss of contrast
2. Increased density

The absorption of useful radiation by a grid is called
A.
grid selectivity.
B.
contrast improvement factor.
C.
grid cutoff.
D.
latitude.

C.
grid cutoff.

Moving the image intensifier closer to the patient during fluoroscopy
1. decreases the source-image distance (SID).
2. decreases patient dose.
3. improves image quality.

1,2,3

How is SID related to exposure rate and radiographic density?
A.
As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density increases.
B.
As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density decreases.
C.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density increases.
D.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases

D.
As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases

In which projection of the foot are the sinus tarsi, cuboid, and tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal best demonstrated?
A.
Lateral oblique foot
B.
Medial oblique foot
C.
Lateral foot
D.
Weight-bearing foot

B.
Medial oblique foot

How many half-value layers will it take to reduce an x-ray beam whose intensity is 78 R/min to an intensity of less than 10 R/min?
A.
2
B.
3
C.
4
D.
8

B.
3

Which of the following is an acceptable approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for a PA chest radiograph?
A.
6 mR
B.
20 mR
C.
38 mR
D.
0.6 R

B.
20 mR

The AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices requires the central ray to be directed
A.
15° cephalad.
B.
15° caudad.
C.
30° cephalad.
D.
30° caudad

A.
15° cephalad

A change from 100 speed screens to 200 speed screens would require what change in mAs?
A.
mAs should be increased by 15%.
B.
mAs should be increased by 30%.
C.
mAs should be doubled.
D.
mAs should be halved

D.
mAs should be halved

The primary parts of the cathode include the

1. focal track.

2. filament.

3. focusing cup.

2. filament.

3. focusing cup.

An increase of 1.0 mm added aluminum filtration of the x-ray beam would have the following effect:
1. Increase average energy of the beam
2. Increase patient skin dose
3. Increase mR output

1. Increase average energy of the beam

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