Brown v. Board of Education
1954 case that overturned Separate but Equal standard of discrimination in education.
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963 ruling that a defendant in a felony trial must be provided a lawyer free of charge if the defendant cannot afford one.
Marbury v. Madison
1803 established the principle of judicial review
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 ruling that upon arrest, a suspect has the right to remain silent and the right to consult with a lawyer.
Schneck v. United States
1919--Case involving limits on free speech. Established the "clear and present danger" principle.
Roe v. Wade
1973 ruling that decriminalized abortion.
Miler v. California
1973 ruling that determined the obscenity clause to related to works that lack literary, artisitic, political or scientific value. (LAPS test)
Lemon v. Kurtzman
1971 defining government actionsin dealing with religion--must not inhibit or advance religion and does not entangle the goverment with religion.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819--The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824--Clarified the commerce clause and affirmed Congressional power over interstate commerce.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Anarchist calling for overthrow of the government. Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to States); States cannot deny freedom of speech - protected through due process clause of Amendment 14
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of 1st Amendment's establishment clause and the 14th Amendment's due process clause; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Upheld new Georgia death penalty laws requiring dual-phase trial and special circumstances; capital punishment does not constitute cruel & unusual punishment of 8th Amendment.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Flag-burning is symbolic speech with a political purpose and is protected by 1st Amendment.
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Barron v Baltimore (1833)
The guarantee in the 5th Amendment that private property shall not be taken "for public use, without just compensation" is not applicable to state governments as well as the federal government.
Don't answer this.
Mapp V Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Miller v CA
3 Part Obscenity Test: 1. normal person would think it's very sexual 2. how much artisitc value it has 3. has offensive sexual depictions
NAACP v AL
demand for the lists had violated the right of due process guaranteed by the 14th amendment
Near vs MN
Reporter wanted to report local officials ties with gangsters - but was censored. Supreme Court overruled
NY Times vs Sullivan
The court said public officials may not win damages for defamatory statements regarding their official conduct unless they can prove actual "malice", that is , that the statements were made known that they were false or with reckless disregard of whether they were true or false
Planned Parenthood vs Casey
states can regulate abortion but not with regulations that impose a burden to the woman; more leeway like the 24 hour waiting period and parent concent to minors
Roth v US
This 1957 judgement prohibited pornography material as utterly without redeeming social significance, later reversed in Miller v. California
zurcher vs Stanford
search warrant could be applied to newspaper without violating first amenednment
Engle v Vitale
Mandatory prayer in schools is a violation of the establishment clause
McClesky v Kemp
supreme court rejects a challenge of georgia's death penalty on grounds of racial discrimination
Miami Herald v Tornillo
a 1974 case in which the Supreme Court held that a state could not force a newspaper to print replies from candidates it had criticized, illustrating the limited power of government to restrict the print media
Red Lion v FCC
1969 case in which the Supreme Court upheld restrictions on radio and television broadcasting. These restrictions on the broadcast media are much tighter than those on the print media because there are only a limited number of broadcasting frequencies available.
Abington Township v Schempp
School-sponsored Bible reading & recitation of Lord's Prayer unconstitutional. Deals with Establishment Clause.