Martin Luther's work had an enthusiastic popular support because
HE attacked the sale of indulgences that the poor could not afford. MANY Christians shared his concern about the corruption of the Church. MANY German princes saw this as a way to break away from the Church. HE supported the translation of the Bible from Latin into the vernacular languages.
What political motivations encouraged the spread of Protestantism?
Protestantism provided monarchs an opportunity to break away from the political domination of Rome.
In response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church
Summoned a council to clarify doctrine and strengthen their spiritual commitment.
What was the principle work of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits)?
To be disciplined, educated representatives of the Church throughout the world.
One reason for the hysterical witch-hunts of the sixteenth century was that
The conflicts of the Reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence.
The Thirty Years' War began when
The Holy Roman Emperor tried to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism.
Who benefited most from the religious controversy generated by the Reformation?
Centralizing monarchs because they gained more independent authority.
Which of the following was not part of Charles V's holdings?
Austria, Netherlands , Hungary & Spain (Despite his vast holdings, Charles V did not control England.)
Charles V was unable to forge a united empire for all of the following reasons except
HIS empire was geographically fragmented. FRENCH kings undermined his efforts and allied themselves with his enemies. THERE was no central administration to the empire; each state was governed separately. THE Lutheran challenge sapped much of his attention.
The new monarchs were characterized by all of the following except
a commitment to individual liberty.
The Spanish Inquisition relied on religious justifications to advance what political ends?
Discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism.
Seventeenth-century constitutional monarchies are characterized by all of the following except
The election of the monarch by the merchant class.
According to the divine-right theory of government
the king derives his authority from God alone and is not accountable to his subjects.
Louis XIV managed to control the nobles of France and their activities by
Requiring the nobility to live at Versailles where he could distract them and keep an eye on them.
The reforms of Peter I included all of the following
OFFERING better pay for peasants who served for life as professional soldiers. FORCING his subjects to adopt western European fashions. BUILDING the city of St. Petersburg to serve as a base of naval operations. PROVIDING extensive training and modern weapons to soldiers.
The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, ensured that
GERMANY remained fragmented. THE nations of Europe would no longer go to war over religion. EACH nation was permitted to direct its own internal affairs. THE balance of power was the new principle of European diplomacy.
New institutions that supported early capitalism included all of the following:
BANKS and lending institutions. STOCK exchanges. JOINT-STOCK companies. INSURANCE companies.
The putting-out system was profitable for all of the following groups
ENTREPRENEURS who moved cloth production into the countryside. RURAL workers who did the spinning and weaving. CONSUMERS who bought the finished cloth. MERCHANTS and traders who shipped woolen cloth outside the country.
Isaac Newton's work seemed to suggest that
the stars and planets were part of a unified system, governed by the same natural laws.
The Council of Trent
An assembly of high church officials summoned by the Catholic Church to clarify doctrine and address reform in response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation.
Tension between Protestants and Roman Catholics
Fueled social and political conflict, resulting in the violence of witch hunts in the sixteenth century.
The Reformation, although fundamentally a religious movement
Had strong political implications, and monarchs used religious issues in attempts to strengthen their states and enhance their authority.