CHAPTER 3 Cell Structure and Function

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A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx.

It will be able to attach to surfaces.
It will be less likely to dry out.
It will be more pathogenic

Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.

Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.

pinocytosis

Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes

diffusion

ATP is expended in which of the following processes?

both active transport and group translocation

component of bacterial flagella?

flagellin
basal body
hook
filament

characteristic of a eukaryotic cell

has a nuclear envelope
more complex than prokaryotes
has membrane-bound organelles

The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions

cell wall

Tumbles occur when

the flagella rotate clockwise

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?

Monotrichous

Peritrichous bacteria make a run when

the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?

Lophotrichous and monotrichous

Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of

60S and 40S subunits

Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability

to cause disease.

Why is ATP necessary for active transport?

ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient

Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?

Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?

Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?

Uniport and Symport

Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?

Antiport and Symport

Bacteria

__________ may have pili.

The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of

group translocation

Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?

both facilitated diffusion and active transport

Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT?

Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.

Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?

endoplasmic reticulum

Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of

responsiveness

A(n) ________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.

capsule

Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called

cilia

Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have

light-harvesting pigments.

Bacterial pili can be described as

specialized fimbriae.

the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory are true

The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes. .
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.

Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?

N-acetylmuramic acid

Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.

both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms

Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.

Gram-negative; membrane

Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by

the absence of a cell wall

Why is no energy required in passive transport?

The concentration gradient drives the movement

Once equilibrium is reached,

molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.

Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?

Positively charged hydrogen ions
Small alcohols

Correct

the following are component of eukaryotic cell walls

silicates
cellulose
chitin

the movement of proteins through the endomembrane system

Rough ER -->Vesicle from ER --> Golgi Apparatus -->Vesicle from golgi -->Plasma membrane

The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?

attachment

Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?

Ions

Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell

through integral transport proteins.

What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?

It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins

A positively charged sodium ion

would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane

the following statements regarding active transport

It requires ATP.
It requires the use of a transport protein.

the following statements concerning centrioles

Centrioles are composed of microtubules.
The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.
Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome.
Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis

the following statements concerning pili

Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella

Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)

A

A periplasmic space is found in which of the following?

Gram-negative cells only

Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.

both bacteria and eukaryotes

If a eukaryotic cell suffers damage to its mitochondria, which of the following processes of life would be most immediately affected?

metabolism

function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton

gives shape to the cell
aids in contraction of the cell
performs endocytosis
anchors organelles

the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella

Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum.
A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum. .
Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.

Lipid A is also known as

endotoxin.

The filament and basal body are associated with which of the following external structures found in some bacterial cells?

flagella

The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.

bacteria

When the nurse practitioner looked into Nadia's throat, she saw white spots on the tonsils. These were white blood cells attempting to fight off the infection. Which of the following statements explains a key difference between Nadia's white blood cells and the Streptococcus pyogenes infecting her throat?

Nadia's white blood cells have a nucleus while the Streptococcus pyogenes do not
Nadia's white blood cells are eukaryotic, while the Streptococcus pyogenes are prokaryotic. The distinctive feature of prokaryotic cells is that they do not have a nucleus.

function of the Streptococcus pyogenes cytoplasmic membrane?

endocytosis
This is a function of eukaryotic cytoplasmic membranes and is not found in bacterial membranes.

Nadia has an infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Gram-positive cell wall. What distinguishes Gram-positive bacterial cell walls from Gram-negative bacteria cell walls?

the presence of teichoic acid
Teichoic acid is unique to Gram-positive organisms and anchors the peptidoglycan layer to the cell membrane.

the following statements concerning osmosis

Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.

Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.

Golgi body

component of bacterial cell walls

tetrapeptide
mycolic acid
peptidoglycan
lipoteichoic acids

Correct

________ are fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces.

Hami

The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways

The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways

the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space

Gram-negative bacteria

Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?

A bacterium moving towards a food source

Axial filaments are found on

spirochetes.

the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is

viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.
living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.
reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.
organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.

Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?

nucleus
DNA is the genetic information of the cell, and it is stored in the nucleus.

The structural framework in a cell is the

cytoskeleton.
The cytoskeleton is the structural framework in a cell ("cyto" refers to cell and "skeleton" refers to a structural framework).

Where in a cell is ATP made?

mitochondria

What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?

mRNA
The "m" in mRNA stands for "messenger"; mRNA is the messenger that carries genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by

ribosomes.
Ribosomes dock on the rough ER, and proteins are completed inside the rough ER.

Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?

Golgi apparatus
The endomembrane system includes the ER, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. It manufactures, processes, and transports lipids and proteins. The Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins.

Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles

ysosomes
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and break down worn-out organelles.

Where are lipids made in the cell?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER

What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?

plasma membrane
The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.

A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain.

has a cell wall that contains waxy lipids.
It will be difficult to stain this cell with the Gram stain.
It may be a member of the genus Mycobacterium.

A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?

The cell will gain water

The process of bringing a solid substance into the cell is known as ____________________.

phagocytosis

Archaeal flagella __________.

rotate as bacterial flagella do

Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.

True

Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.

True

the following would be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell

porins

(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.

symport

Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes

__________ may have flagella.

Which of the following processes can be either specific or nonspecific depending upon the particular molecules that are transported

facilitated diffusion

Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria

mycolic acid

the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?

small hydrophobic molecules

Paired structures composed of tubulin that play a role in eukaryotic mitosis are known as ________.
centrioles

tubulin

A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.
lower

lower

the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?

both fimbriae and glycocalyces

Which of the following is unique to archaea?

hami

Some members of the __________ have hami.

archaea

When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called

crenation.

What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?

They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.

Integral proteins are involved in

transport function

How does water enter and exit a cell?

By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein

Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?

symport

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