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____ concentrates on the relationship between individual characteristics; ____ examines the relationships between institutional characteristics.

a. Microsociology; macrosociology
b. Macrosociology; microsociology
c. Metasociology; macrosociology
d. Metasociology; microsociology
e. Microsociology; mezosociology

a

If the researcher and the respondent interpret a research question differently, there is a problem with

a. reliability.
b. validity.
c. deduction.
d. accuracy.
e. objectivity.

b

Benjamin describes himself as a single male, a college student, and a son. Benjamin's self description illustrates which of the key functions of socialization?
a. Socialization establishes our social identity.
b. Socialization teaches us role taking.
c. Socialization controls our behavior.
d. Socialization transmits culture to the next generation.
e. none of these

a

____, who coined the term "sociology," is also known as the "father of sociology."
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. C. Wright Mills
e. Max Weber

a

____ is often described as the "most influential social scientist who ever lived."
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Karl Marx
c. Jane Addams
d. Max Weber
e. C. Wright Mills

b

Which theorist is associated with the "looking-glass self?"
a. Charles Horton Cooley
b. Erving Goffman
c. Harry Harlow
d. George Herbert Mead
e. Margaret Mead

a

Mead called the part of the self that is socialized the
a. "me."
b. "I."
c. id.
d. ego.
e. role.

a

____ is the lifelong process of social interaction in which an individual acquires a social identify.
a. The generalized other
b. The looking-glass self
c. Socialization
d. Resocialization
e. The sense of self

c

One of the intended purposes of the mass incarceration in the United States is punishment of crime. This is a/n ____ of incarceration.
a. intentional function
b. beneficial function
c. manifest function
d. latent function
e. dysfunction

c

Maggie's parents clap and cheer every time she uses the potty "like a big girl." According to social learning theories, this is an example of ____ learning.
a. primary
b. indirect
c. direct
d. constant
e. gendered

c

____ is a statement of a relationship between two or more variables.
a. Validity
b. A hypothesis
c. Reliability
d. An independent relationship
e. The scientific method

b

Using a sociological perspective encourages
a. accepting conventional ideas
b. challenging common sense myths and misconceptions
c. seeing society as unpredictable
d. people to become happier
e. all of these are correct

e

Markus hypothesizes that unemployment increases the risk of poverty among women. In his project, ____ is the independent variable and ____ is the dependent variable.
a. unemployment; poverty
b. poverty; unemployment
c. gender, unemployment
d. gender; poverty
e. poverty; gender

a

Barney, a junior, was interested in studying the study habits of college freshman. To better understand this issue, Barney joined a number of study groups designed for freshman-level courses at his college. Barney is using which data collection method?
a. secondary analysis
b. evaluation research
c. survey
d. experiment
e. field research

e

Kevin views society as a system of interrelated parts, while Patrick views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Kevin would be considered a ____ theorist and Patrick would be seen as a ____ theorist.
a. symbolic interactionist; functionalist
b. conflict; functionalist
c. functionalist; symbolic interactionist
d. functionalist; conflict
e. conflict; symbolic interactionist

d

Tony's parents put him in "time-out" each time he colors on the walls. According to social learning theories, this is an example of ____ learning.
a. primary
b. indirect
c. direct
d. constant
e. gendered

e

In 1998, the University of Wisconsin collected data on means of transportation to work. In 2008, Betsy (a University of Minnesota student) used the data for her own project. Betsy is using which data collection method?
a. secondary analysis
b. evaluation research
c. survey
d. experiment
e. field research

a

When Aaron went to daycare, he observed that his peers did not get punished for hitting and kicking the other kids. According to social learning theories, this is an example of ____ learning.
a. primary
b. indirect
c. direct
d. constant
e. gendered

b

Andrew was born to a single mother. He started preschool at age 4 and finished high school at age 18. Andrew attended college and then got his first job when he was 23. Andrew was married at age 25 and had two children by age 31. Andrew retired at 67 and died at age 82. When did Andrew's socialization begin?
a. At birth
b. Age 4
c. Age 18
d. Age 25
e. Age 82

a

Frank understands that he must attend his driver's education classes. If he does not, he will not pass the driving test and will not be allowed to drive. This is an illustration of which of the key functions of socialization?
a. Socialization establishes our social identity.
b. Socialization teaches us role taking.
c. Socialization controls our behavior.
d. Socialization transmits culture to the next generation.
e. none of these

b

Which theorist is associated with the concepts of "me" and "I?"
a. Charles Horton Cooley
b. Erving Goffman
c. Harry Harlow
d. George Herbert Mead
e. Margaret Mead

d

Gretchen is conducting a research project and is interviewing respondents about their fertility history. On the first day her respondent says that she has had three children. However, the next day, the respondent reports that she has only two children. This is an example of a problem with
a. validity.
b. reliability.
c. hypotheses.
d. variables.
e. methods.

b

This early sociologist helped to found the NAACP and was himself a prominent Black sociologist.
a. W.E.B. DuBois
b. Booker T. Washington
c. Jesse Martin
d. Donald Black
e. George Herbert Mead

a

Which of the following statements is true regarding the role of correlation and causation in social research?
a. The terms "correlation" and "causation" can be used interchangeably.
b. Correlation and causation are mutually exclusive terms.
c. Social research does not address issues of causation.
d. Social research does not address issues of correlation.
e. Sociologists can only predict death with relative certainty.

c

Because it is typically too expensive and too time consuming, researchers often select a/n ____, a group of people that are representative of the larger population.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. hypothesis
d. section
e. sample

e

Which of the following is not one of the major strengths of survey research?
a. Surveys are inexpensive.
b. Surveys are often anonymous.
c. Surveys are simple to administer.
d. Surveys have very high response rates.
e. Surveys are fast.

d

Biologists focus on the role of ____ in human development. Sociologists focus on the role of ____ in human development.
a. internalization; socialization
b. institutionalization; internalization
c. internalization; institutionalization
d. socialization; heredity
e. heredity; socialization

e

Troy encourages his daughters to work hard and rewards their work with complements and occasional gifts. Troy's parenting style is
a. authoritarian.
b. authoritative.
c. permissive.
d. uninvolved.
e. maternal.

b

Allison was walking through the park and noticed that some people continually turned to watch her walk by. She thought, "People must think I'm fat." Allison is in which of Cooley's stages?
a. Phase 1: perception
b. Phase 2: interpretation
c. Phase 3: response
d. Phase 4: reflection
e. none of these

b

Which of the following are not primary agents of socialization?
a. parents
b. peers
c. teachers
d. media
e. sports

c

David is scientifically studying how teachers and students interact within high school classrooms. David is a/n
a. historian.
b. economist.
c. sociologist.
d. political scientist.
e. social worker.

c

Which of the following statements best exemplifies conflict theory?
a. Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.
b. Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.
c. Gender inequality is the major source in inequality in society.
d. People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.
e. None of these exemplifies the conflict theory.

b

Which of the following statements best exemplifies functionalist theory?
a. Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.
b. Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.
c. Gender inequality is the major source in inequality in society.
d. People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.
e. None of these exemplifies the functionalist theory.

a

Barry enjoys watching football with his son. When his son asked him permission to go to a game, Barry replied, "Sure, whatever." Barry's parenting style is
a. authoritarian.
b. authoritative.
c. permissive.
d. uninvolved.
e. maternal.

d

Which of the following is the appropriate order of Cooley's phases of the "looking-glass self?"
a. perception, interpretation, response
b. perception, response, interpretation
c. perception, initiation, response
d. preparatory, play, game
e. play, game, preparatory

a

____ is the degree to which a measure actually measures what you intended it to measure.
a. Reliability
b. Hypothesis
c. Deduction
d. Induction
e. Validity

e

Teresa's children do not have a curfew and have few house rules. Teresa's parenting style is
a. authoritarian.
b. authoritative.
c. permissive.
d. uninvolved.
e. maternal.

c

Caitlin behaves and interacts differently with her boyfriend than she does with her girlfriends. This is an illustration of which of the key functions of socialization?
a. Socialization establishes our social identity.
b. Socialization teaches us role taking.
c. Socialization controls our behavior.
d. Socialization transmits culture to the next generation.
e. none of these

b

Travis has struggled with his school work for several years. Now that he has started high school, Travis believes that his teachers will judge him from his past work. Travis is in which of Cooley's stages?
a. Phase 1: perception
b. Phase 2: interpretation
c. Phase 3: response
d. Phase 4: reflection
e. none of these

a

A ____ is any well-defined group of people about whom researchers want to know something.
a. probability sample
b. nonprobability sample
c. population
d. hypothesis
e. sample

c

Sociology is just common sense.(true or false)

false

Functionalists ask, "How do social institutions contribute to society?"(true or false)

true

In the United States, suicide rates are higher among women than men.(true or false)

true

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