Sociology

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exam 1

The concept used to describe opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called __________

Sociological Imagination (or perspective)

When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job and income, they are trying to determine their

Social Location

Of the following, which variables do sociologists emphasize the most as being the determining motivation for our thinking and behavior?

One's society and social location

The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was

C.Wright mills

The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was

Auguste Comte

The first goal of each scientific discipline is to

explain why something happens

The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as

Social Darwinism

Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the

Protestant Ethic

The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ____ and the _____.

Bourgeoisie; proletariat

Max Weber used the term 'verstehen' to mean

to grasp by insight

Durkheim referred to patterns of behavior that characterize a social group as

social facts

Sociologists who analyze how behavior depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely

symbolic interactionists

Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a ____ theorist and John would be seen as a ____ theorist.

functionalist; conflict

Conflict theorists would contend that changes in _______ explain the high divorce rates in the United States.

Male/female power relationships

Which group of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of society?

Conflict theorists and structural functionalists.

Which sociological perspectives are best to use in developing an accurate understanding of society?

All must be utilized.

College provides a haven for several million potential workers who are classified as "students" rather than "unemployed" which helps stabilize the job market. This situation represents what Merton would describe as a

Latent function

People all over the world, especially college students are breaking down national boundaries because of advances in communication, trade, and travel. This is referred to as

globalization

Of the following research topics, which most qualifies as research on the micro level?

Patient-doctor relationship

In the research model, the step in which the author of the research specifies what he or she wants to learn about the topic of study is called

defining the problem

The research method that involves a collection of data by having people answer a series of questions is

survey

The term _______ refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.

reliability

Using police records, crime reports, and economic reports, Max will test his hypothesis that unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than men who are employed. He will most likely use a form of ________ analysis to test his hypothesis.

quantitative

In research, to generalize one's findings to a total population, what is the most important quality the sample must possess?

representativeness

What is the greatest flaw in using self-administered questionnaires for a research study?

The researcher loses control over conditions by which they are administered.

What is the major problem using participant observation as a research tool?

generalizability

While conducting research on domestic abuse, Tanya asked workers at a battered women's shelter, "What do you think causes some men to abuse their wives?" and then permitted them to elaborate on their answers. What is the term used to describe such a question with this type of answering option?

open-ended questions

Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whiskey bottles in trash cans to measure the level of whiskey consumption in town. These researchers are using a method of research referred to as

unobtrusive measures

Matthew is completing his master's thesis which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months he has been riding with such a gang, observing and describing their behavior in an attempt to present a view of these gangs from the gang members' perspective. Matthew is employing which research method?

Qualitative

What are the three qualities on which research ethics are based?

openness, honesty and truthfulness

Why did a number of sociologists think Laud Humphreys' research on tearooms was unethical?

He did not identify himself as a researcher

Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects and technology passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe

culture

Jewelry, art, hairstyles and clothing each represent examples of

material culture

Comparing the refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is to ethnocentrism as making a sincere effort to understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is to

cultural relativism

Sociologists use the concept "norms" to describe

the expectations or rules for behavior that develops out of values

When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society, the group would be considered a[n]

subculture

Which of the following groups would NOT be an example of a counterculture?

Chicago cubs fans

Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on the value of

achievement and success

In the "Nature vs. Nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to

Social environment

Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is the key variable in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted?

Intimate Early Social Interaction

The process by which we develop a sense of self referred to as the "looking glass self" was developed by

Charles Cooley

George Herbert Mead theorized that learning to take the role of the other entails three stages which are the __, __, and ___, stages.

imitation; play; and games

What concept do sociologists have in mind when they say "society makes us human"?

Socialization

Our image of who we are called is the

self

What term would Mead use to refer to the norms, values, attitudes and expectations of the public?

Generalized Others

Mead describes the active, creative and spontaneous part of the self as the __.

I

According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, and looking and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ________ stage.

sensory motor

How does the mass media influence gender roles in contemporary American society?

It reinforces gender roles considered appropriate for ones sex.

People and groups that influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior are called

agents of socialization

What term applies to the stages people pass through from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with "the older years"?

the life course

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