Criminal Investigations (3)

Created by evans2009ns 

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29 terms

Aerial Photo

excellent to study crimes

Chain of custody

a written document that can account for an item of evidence from the time it came into an agency's possession to the time it is presented in court

chronological log

a record of events as they occur at the scene of a crime

close-up photo

used for recording evidence in detail

corpus delicti

body of a crime; essential elements

crime report

facts are recorded

crime scene sketches and photographs

assist jurors in understanding the case

criminalistics

individualization of physical evidence in a crime lab; also referred to as a forensic science

discovery

defense asks for disclosure of the police case against his or her client

ever-narrowing circle

the searching officer starts at the outskirts of the crime scene and works toward its focal point

ever-widening circle

the searching officer starts at the focal point of the scene or the center of the security area and works outward by circling in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction until the fringes of the protected area are reached

locard's exchange principle

involves the cross transfer of evidence; primarily hairs and fibers

field notes

basic record of the search and the evidence discovered

known standard of evidence

evidence collected from a known source

long-range photo

shows the locale, approach route, a hallway, 2 connected rooms

mid-range photo

10-20 ft. pinpoint a specific object of evidence or segment of the crime scene

match

most favorable term in a crime lab report of a comparison analysis of evidence submitted by police investigators

modus operandi

involves the choice of a particular crime to commit and the selection of a method of committing it

neighborhood canvass

a method of contacting people in the area of a crime scene to locate potential witnesses

neutralize the crime scene

making the crime scene safe for other personnel to enter the area

point-to-point movement

following a chain of objects that are obviously evidence

preliminary investigative report

basic information collected from a crime scene

retroactive interference

witnesses' tendency to adopt information from other witnesses' as their own or alter their recollections to fit with those of other witnesses

silent witness program

seeks information but offers rewards and confidentiality

single-officer search

assist in locating evidence but do not collect it

strip or grid search

outdoor areas; the area to be searched is plotted like a football field. Searching starts at a sideline and goes to the other sideline and is kept up until the search is complete.

unwilling witness

disappear from a crime scene

view area

how many people may have saw the crime

zone or sector search

crime scene is subdivided into segments and each sector is searched as an individual unit

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