Chapter 21: Immune System

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111 terms · Flashcard deck from note set on chapter 21

3

The immune system can be divided into (#) lines of defense

Specific and non-specific

There are two types of immunity, _______ and ______.

Non-specific

this type of immunity protects against many foreign agents.

Mechanical barriers, chemical barriers and reflex

What three mechanisms are part of a non-specific first line of defense?

Mechanical

Skin and mucus membranes are examples of ______ barriers

Chemical

Tears, sweat and saliva are examples of _____ barriers.

Reflex

Sneezing, coughing, vomiting and diarrhea are examples of ______.

Phagocytosis , inflammation, Fever, protective proteins

These four activities/responses are examples of the second line of defense in a non-specific immune reaction.

Phagocytosis

neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages ingest and destroy foreign substances in a process known as _____.

Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages

Which three cell types are responsible for phagocytosis in the non-specific immune reaction?

Chemotaxis

_____ is the chemical signaling of the body to attract phagocytes.

Diapedesis

_____ is the move of WBCs through endothelium of blood vessels and into the tissue space.

Inflammation

A secondary line of defense response in a non-specific immune reaction includes phagocytosis and _____ the response of the body to irritants.

Inflammation

_____ response includes redness, heat, swelling, pain, and pus

Histamine

The inflammation response is activated by chemicals such as _____.

Pus

an accumulation of dead and injured cells and tissue fluid often occurring during the second line of defense in a non-specific immune reaction.

Fever

An abnormal elevation in body temperature is known as _____

Pyrexia

Fever is also known as _____.

Pyrogens

Fevers are set in motion by the release of _____ from the phagocytes.

Hypothalamus

Pyrogens released by the phagocytes act upon the _____ to reset body temperature.

Increase/decrease

When a fever is stimulated you may see a (increase/decrease) in phagocytic activity and a (increase/decrease) in the ability of some pathogens to multiply.

Shivering

When the hypothalamus is reset to a higher body temperature we experience _____ a contraction of the muscles which is the body's attempt to generate heat.

Sweating

When the fever breaks and the body attempts to return to a normal temperature we experience _____ the body's attempt to release heat and cool down.

Vasodilator

Histamine is a ______ it increases the size of the blood vessels.

Histamine

This chemical increases capillary membrane permeability (makes the membranes more leaky) and causes swelling.

Pain

When histamine increases capillary membrane permeability and thereby increases swelling that swelling may put pressure on nerve endings causing _____.

Chemicals

Besides increased pressure from swelling causing pain, pain can also be caused by _____.

Interferons

These are protective proteins which may be secreted by cells infected with a virus to interfere with viral replication.

Virus

Interferons are secreted by cells infected with a _____.

Compliment

A collection of 20+ proteins which attach to a pathogen and punch holes in the cell wall.

True

True or False: Compliment is a protective protein combination which enhances our immune response.

Chemotaxis

Compliment proteins make phagocytosis more effective at stimulating _____.

Natural Killer Cells

These cells directly kill pathogens.

False (non-specific)

True or False: Natural killer cells are a specific type of lymphocyte

Perforin

Natural killer cells destroy a variety of cells by using _____ to destroy the cell membranes.

Specific Immunity

This type of immunity protects against one particular substance.

Immunotolerance

The body's ability to distinguish self from non-self (antigens) is called _____.

Lymphocytes and macrophages

Specific immunity involves which two types of cells?

Bone Marrow

Lymphocytes are formed in the ______.

Thymus

T lymphocytes mature and differentiate in the _____
.

70-80

T lymphocytes make up _____% of blood lymphocytes

T-lymphocytes

These lymphocytes are involved in cell mediated immunity.

Fetal Liver and Bone marrow

B lymphocytes differentiate in the ______ and _____.

20-30

B lymphocytes make up _____% of blood lymphocytes

B lymphocytes

These lymphocytes are involved in antibody mediated immunity.

Cell

_____ mediated immunity is largely fueled by T lymphocytes or T-cells

Macrophage

In Cell mediated immunity the _____ engulfs the antigen containing pathogen and the antigen is pushed to the surface.

T-cell receptors

In cell mediated immunity the _____ bind to antigens and become activated.

Killer t cells, helper t cells, suppressor t cells and memory t cells

In cell mediated immunity once the t cell receptors are activated they divide repeatedly creating the following 4 clone cell types _____.

Killer T Cells

this T cell clone destroys pathogens either by punching holes in cell membranes or secreting lymphokines.

Helper T cells

this T cell clone enhances immune response by stimulating T and B cells

Suppressor T cells

This T cell clone inhibits immune response following the destruction of pathogens.

Memory T cells

this T cell clone remembers pathogens allowing for a faster response in the event of a second exposure to the same pathogen.

Memory T cells

Which of the T cell clones is not a participant in the destruction of a pathogen?

Direct

Cell mediated immunity is a _____ method of destruction.

Indirect

Antibody mediated immunity is an _____ method of attack

B

Antibody mediated immunity involves mostly _____ cells.

T and B

In antibody mediated immunity the macrophage engulfs the antigen containing pathogen and the antigen is pushed to the surface of the macrophage to be presented to the helper _____ and _____ cells.

Antigens

In antibody mediated immunity _____ bind to receptors on the T and B cells activating the cells.

Lymphokine

In antibody mediated immunity, activated T cells secrete _____ causing B cells to reproduce forming clones.

Plasma cells and memory B cells

These are the types of clones produced by B cells in antibody mediated immunity.

Plasma Cells

These B cell clones produce antibodies which cause clumping.

Memory B cells

These B cell clones remember a pathogen allowing for a faster response in the event of a second exposure to the same antigen.

Immunoglobins

Antibodies are also known as _____.

B

_____ cells secrete antibodies (immunoglobins) to destroy antigens.

IgG

The immunoglobin _____ is found in plasma and body fluids.

IgG

This immunoglobin is the most prevalent.

IgA

This immunoglobin is found in the secretion of exocrine glands.

IgA

Tears, breast milk and gastric juices are examples of _____ immunoglobin.

IgG

This immunoglobin is effective against certain bacteria, viruses and toxins.

IgM

The immunoglobin _____ is found in blood plasma.

IgM

Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies are examples of the _____ immunoglobin.

IgE

The immunoglobin ____ is involved in the allergic response.

Antigen

The particular protein associated with a pathogen is called a(n) _____.

Compliment proteins, mast cells and basophils

What 3 things do antibodies activate?

True

True or False: antibodies destroy things both directly and indirectly.

Direct

The antigen-antibody reaction is a(n) _____ method of destruction.

Direct

The agglutination response is a(n) _____ method of destruction.

Antigen

The agglutination response is considered a direct effect of antibodies because the antibody physically attaches to the _____.

Indirect

The activation of compliment proteins is a(n) _____ method of destruction.

Stimulate chemotaxis, promote agglutination, enhance phagocytosis and encourage lysis and inflammation

List 5 ways that compliment proteins act to indirectly destroy antigens.

Activation of the compliment proteins / indirect

Which specific method of antigen destruction has the greatest effect and is it considered to be a direct or indirect method.

Primary

Our initial response to an antigen where antibodies are slow to develop is known as the _____ response.

Secondary

The second exposure to an antigen where antibody response times are swift is known as the _____ response.

Primary

There is a relatively low plasma level of antibodies in the _____ response.

Memory

The differences in response between primary and secondary responses are due to _____ cells.

True

True or False: Memory cells are responsible for the development of immunity to specific pathogens/diseases.

Antibody Titer

The level of antibodies in the blood is called _____.

Genetic/acquired

There are two different types of immunity, _____ and _____.

Genetic

_____ immunity is inherited or innate and prevents us from contracting diseases from other species.

Acquired

_____ immunity is received during an individual's lifetime.

False (can be natural or artificially acquired)

True or False: Acquired immunity is an artificial form of immunity only.

Active

_____ naturally acquired immunity occurs when an individual produces antibodies after exposure to an antigen.

Passive

_____ naturally acquired immunity is received through antibodies from the mother.

False (passive naturally acquired immunity is short lived)

True or False: Active naturally acquired immunity is short lived protection.

Active

_____ artificially acquired immunity occurs when an individual is injected with an antigen or toxin from the disease.

Passive

_____ artificially acquired immunity occurs when an individual is injected with antibodies produced from a donor.

Active

Most vaccines are examples of _____ artificially acquired immunity.

Passive

This type of artificially acquired immunity provides only short-lived protection.

True

True or False: Delayed allergic reactions are usually caused by repeat exposure to the skin of certain irritants and may take up to 48 hours to occur.

Allergen activates B cell - B cell forms clone of plasma cell - plasma cell secretes IgE against allergen - IgE antibodies bind to mast cells in tissues - Mast cells release histamine and leukotrienes

Describe the immune-response that occurs in an allergic reaction (5 steps)

Anaphylactic Shock

Immediate allergic reactions may result in a life-threating condition known as _____.

True

True or False: When anaphylactic shock occurs there is widespread vasodilation in addition to bronchoconstriction.

Leukotrienes

These cause bronchoconstriction in an allergic reaction.

Histamine

This causes vasodilation in an allergic reaction.

T cells

In an autoimmune disease _____ attack the body.

Systemic lupus, Erythematosis, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis

List 4 autoimmune disorders.

Use an immunologically similar donor and administer immunosuppressants to the recipient

What are two ways that we try to prevent organ rejection in an individual who has received a transplant?

Systemic Lupuserythematosis

This autoimmune disorder may present with a red rash on the cheeks due to sun sensitivity.

Myasthenia gravis

This autoimmune disorder attacks neuromuscular junctions and presents as weak or flaccid muscles on one side of the body.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

This autoimmune disorder affects tissue on joint surfaces.

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