The immune system can be divided into (#) lines of defense
Specific and non-specific
There are two types of immunity, _______ and ______.
this type of immunity protects against many foreign agents.
Mechanical barriers, chemical barriers and reflex
What three mechanisms are part of a non-specific first line of defense?
Skin and mucus membranes are examples of ______ barriers
Tears, sweat and saliva are examples of _____ barriers.
Sneezing, coughing, vomiting and diarrhea are examples of ______.
Phagocytosis , inflammation, Fever, protective proteins
These four activities/responses are examples of the second line of defense in a non-specific immune reaction.
neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages ingest and destroy foreign substances in a process known as _____.
Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages
Which three cell types are responsible for phagocytosis in the non-specific immune reaction?
_____ is the chemical signaling of the body to attract phagocytes.
_____ is the move of WBCs through endothelium of blood vessels and into the tissue space.
A secondary line of defense response in a non-specific immune reaction includes phagocytosis and _____ the response of the body to irritants.
_____ response includes redness, heat, swelling, pain, and pus
The inflammation response is activated by chemicals such as _____.
an accumulation of dead and injured cells and tissue fluid often occurring during the second line of defense in a non-specific immune reaction.
An abnormal elevation in body temperature is known as _____
Fever is also known as _____.
Fevers are set in motion by the release of _____ from the phagocytes.
Pyrogens released by the phagocytes act upon the _____ to reset body temperature.
When a fever is stimulated you may see a (increase/decrease) in phagocytic activity and a (increase/decrease) in the ability of some pathogens to multiply.
When the hypothalamus is reset to a higher body temperature we experience _____ a contraction of the muscles which is the body's attempt to generate heat.
When the fever breaks and the body attempts to return to a normal temperature we experience _____ the body's attempt to release heat and cool down.
Histamine is a ______ it increases the size of the blood vessels.
This chemical increases capillary membrane permeability (makes the membranes more leaky) and causes swelling.
When histamine increases capillary membrane permeability and thereby increases swelling that swelling may put pressure on nerve endings causing _____.
Besides increased pressure from swelling causing pain, pain can also be caused by _____.
These are protective proteins which may be secreted by cells infected with a virus to interfere with viral replication.
Interferons are secreted by cells infected with a _____.
A collection of 20+ proteins which attach to a pathogen and punch holes in the cell wall.
True or False: Compliment is a protective protein combination which enhances our immune response.
Compliment proteins make phagocytosis more effective at stimulating _____.
Natural Killer Cells
These cells directly kill pathogens.
True or False: Natural killer cells are a specific type of lymphocyte
Natural killer cells destroy a variety of cells by using _____ to destroy the cell membranes.
This type of immunity protects against one particular substance.
The body's ability to distinguish self from non-self (antigens) is called _____.
Lymphocytes and macrophages
Specific immunity involves which two types of cells?
Lymphocytes are formed in the ______.
T lymphocytes mature and differentiate in the _____
T lymphocytes make up _____% of blood lymphocytes
These lymphocytes are involved in cell mediated immunity.
Fetal Liver and Bone marrow
B lymphocytes differentiate in the ______ and _____.
B lymphocytes make up _____% of blood lymphocytes
These lymphocytes are involved in antibody mediated immunity.
_____ mediated immunity is largely fueled by T lymphocytes or T-cells
In Cell mediated immunity the _____ engulfs the antigen containing pathogen and the antigen is pushed to the surface.
In cell mediated immunity the _____ bind to antigens and become activated.
Killer t cells, helper t cells, suppressor t cells and memory t cells
In cell mediated immunity once the t cell receptors are activated they divide repeatedly creating the following 4 clone cell types _____.
Killer T Cells
this T cell clone destroys pathogens either by punching holes in cell membranes or secreting lymphokines.
Helper T cells
this T cell clone enhances immune response by stimulating T and B cells
Suppressor T cells
This T cell clone inhibits immune response following the destruction of pathogens.
Memory T cells
this T cell clone remembers pathogens allowing for a faster response in the event of a second exposure to the same pathogen.
Memory T cells
Which of the T cell clones is not a participant in the destruction of a pathogen?
Cell mediated immunity is a _____ method of destruction.
Antibody mediated immunity is an _____ method of attack
Antibody mediated immunity involves mostly _____ cells.
T and B
In antibody mediated immunity the macrophage engulfs the antigen containing pathogen and the antigen is pushed to the surface of the macrophage to be presented to the helper _____ and _____ cells.
In antibody mediated immunity _____ bind to receptors on the T and B cells activating the cells.
In antibody mediated immunity, activated T cells secrete _____ causing B cells to reproduce forming clones.
Plasma cells and memory B cells
These are the types of clones produced by B cells in antibody mediated immunity.
These B cell clones produce antibodies which cause clumping.
Memory B cells
These B cell clones remember a pathogen allowing for a faster response in the event of a second exposure to the same antigen.
Antibodies are also known as _____.
_____ cells secrete antibodies (immunoglobins) to destroy antigens.
The immunoglobin _____ is found in plasma and body fluids.
This immunoglobin is the most prevalent.
This immunoglobin is found in the secretion of exocrine glands.
Tears, breast milk and gastric juices are examples of _____ immunoglobin.
This immunoglobin is effective against certain bacteria, viruses and toxins.
The immunoglobin _____ is found in blood plasma.
Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies are examples of the _____ immunoglobin.
The immunoglobin ____ is involved in the allergic response.
The particular protein associated with a pathogen is called a(n) _____.
Compliment proteins, mast cells and basophils
What 3 things do antibodies activate?
True or False: antibodies destroy things both directly and indirectly.
The antigen-antibody reaction is a(n) _____ method of destruction.
The agglutination response is a(n) _____ method of destruction.
The agglutination response is considered a direct effect of antibodies because the antibody physically attaches to the _____.
The activation of compliment proteins is a(n) _____ method of destruction.
Stimulate chemotaxis, promote agglutination, enhance phagocytosis and encourage lysis and inflammation
List 5 ways that compliment proteins act to indirectly destroy antigens.
Activation of the compliment proteins / indirect
Which specific method of antigen destruction has the greatest effect and is it considered to be a direct or indirect method.
Our initial response to an antigen where antibodies are slow to develop is known as the _____ response.
The second exposure to an antigen where antibody response times are swift is known as the _____ response.
There is a relatively low plasma level of antibodies in the _____ response.
The differences in response between primary and secondary responses are due to _____ cells.
True or False: Memory cells are responsible for the development of immunity to specific pathogens/diseases.
The level of antibodies in the blood is called _____.
There are two different types of immunity, _____ and _____.
_____ immunity is inherited or innate and prevents us from contracting diseases from other species.
_____ immunity is received during an individual's lifetime.
False (can be natural or artificially acquired)
True or False: Acquired immunity is an artificial form of immunity only.
_____ naturally acquired immunity occurs when an individual produces antibodies after exposure to an antigen.
_____ naturally acquired immunity is received through antibodies from the mother.
False (passive naturally acquired immunity is short lived)
True or False: Active naturally acquired immunity is short lived protection.
_____ artificially acquired immunity occurs when an individual is injected with an antigen or toxin from the disease.
_____ artificially acquired immunity occurs when an individual is injected with antibodies produced from a donor.
Most vaccines are examples of _____ artificially acquired immunity.
This type of artificially acquired immunity provides only short-lived protection.
True or False: Delayed allergic reactions are usually caused by repeat exposure to the skin of certain irritants and may take up to 48 hours to occur.
Allergen activates B cell - B cell forms clone of plasma cell - plasma cell secretes IgE against allergen - IgE antibodies bind to mast cells in tissues - Mast cells release histamine and leukotrienes
Describe the immune-response that occurs in an allergic reaction (5 steps)
Immediate allergic reactions may result in a life-threating condition known as _____.
True or False: When anaphylactic shock occurs there is widespread vasodilation in addition to bronchoconstriction.
These cause bronchoconstriction in an allergic reaction.
This causes vasodilation in an allergic reaction.
In an autoimmune disease _____ attack the body.
Systemic lupus, Erythematosis, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis
List 4 autoimmune disorders.
Use an immunologically similar donor and administer immunosuppressants to the recipient
What are two ways that we try to prevent organ rejection in an individual who has received a transplant?
This autoimmune disorder may present with a red rash on the cheeks due to sun sensitivity.
This autoimmune disorder attacks neuromuscular junctions and presents as weak or flaccid muscles on one side of the body.
This autoimmune disorder affects tissue on joint surfaces.