Mechanical barriers, chemical barriers and reflex
What three mechanisms are part of a non-specific first line of defense?
Phagocytosis , inflammation, Fever, protective proteins
These four activities/responses are examples of the second line of defense in a non-specific immune reaction.
neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages ingest and destroy foreign substances in a process known as _____.
Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages
Which three cell types are responsible for phagocytosis in the non-specific immune reaction?
_____ is the move of WBCs through endothelium of blood vessels and into the tissue space.
A secondary line of defense response in a non-specific immune reaction includes phagocytosis and _____ the response of the body to irritants.
an accumulation of dead and injured cells and tissue fluid often occurring during the second line of defense in a non-specific immune reaction.
When a fever is stimulated you may see a (increase/decrease) in phagocytic activity and a (increase/decrease) in the ability of some pathogens to multiply.
When the hypothalamus is reset to a higher body temperature we experience _____ a contraction of the muscles which is the body's attempt to generate heat.
When the fever breaks and the body attempts to return to a normal temperature we experience _____ the body's attempt to release heat and cool down.
This chemical increases capillary membrane permeability (makes the membranes more leaky) and causes swelling.
When histamine increases capillary membrane permeability and thereby increases swelling that swelling may put pressure on nerve endings causing _____.
These are protective proteins which may be secreted by cells infected with a virus to interfere with viral replication.
A collection of 20+ proteins which attach to a pathogen and punch holes in the cell wall.
True or False: Compliment is a protective protein combination which enhances our immune response.
Natural killer cells destroy a variety of cells by using _____ to destroy the cell membranes.
In Cell mediated immunity the _____ engulfs the antigen containing pathogen and the antigen is pushed to the surface.
Killer t cells, helper t cells, suppressor t cells and memory t cells
In cell mediated immunity once the t cell receptors are activated they divide repeatedly creating the following 4 clone cell types _____.
Killer T Cells
this T cell clone destroys pathogens either by punching holes in cell membranes or secreting lymphokines.
Suppressor T cells
This T cell clone inhibits immune response following the destruction of pathogens.
Memory T cells
this T cell clone remembers pathogens allowing for a faster response in the event of a second exposure to the same pathogen.
T and B
In antibody mediated immunity the macrophage engulfs the antigen containing pathogen and the antigen is pushed to the surface of the macrophage to be presented to the helper _____ and _____ cells.
In antibody mediated immunity _____ bind to receptors on the T and B cells activating the cells.
In antibody mediated immunity, activated T cells secrete _____ causing B cells to reproduce forming clones.
Plasma cells and memory B cells
These are the types of clones produced by B cells in antibody mediated immunity.
Memory B cells
These B cell clones remember a pathogen allowing for a faster response in the event of a second exposure to the same antigen.
The agglutination response is considered a direct effect of antibodies because the antibody physically attaches to the _____.
Stimulate chemotaxis, promote agglutination, enhance phagocytosis and encourage lysis and inflammation
List 5 ways that compliment proteins act to indirectly destroy antigens.
Activation of the compliment proteins / indirect
Which specific method of antigen destruction has the greatest effect and is it considered to be a direct or indirect method.
Our initial response to an antigen where antibodies are slow to develop is known as the _____ response.
The second exposure to an antigen where antibody response times are swift is known as the _____ response.
True or False: Memory cells are responsible for the development of immunity to specific pathogens/diseases.
_____ immunity is inherited or innate and prevents us from contracting diseases from other species.
False (can be natural or artificially acquired)
True or False: Acquired immunity is an artificial form of immunity only.
_____ naturally acquired immunity occurs when an individual produces antibodies after exposure to an antigen.
False (passive naturally acquired immunity is short lived)
True or False: Active naturally acquired immunity is short lived protection.
_____ artificially acquired immunity occurs when an individual is injected with an antigen or toxin from the disease.
_____ artificially acquired immunity occurs when an individual is injected with antibodies produced from a donor.
True or False: Delayed allergic reactions are usually caused by repeat exposure to the skin of certain irritants and may take up to 48 hours to occur.
Allergen activates B cell - B cell forms clone of plasma cell - plasma cell secretes IgE against allergen - IgE antibodies bind to mast cells in tissues - Mast cells release histamine and leukotrienes
Describe the immune-response that occurs in an allergic reaction (5 steps)
Immediate allergic reactions may result in a life-threating condition known as _____.
True or False: When anaphylactic shock occurs there is widespread vasodilation in addition to bronchoconstriction.
Systemic lupus, Erythematosis, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis
List 4 autoimmune disorders.
Use an immunologically similar donor and administer immunosuppressants to the recipient
What are two ways that we try to prevent organ rejection in an individual who has received a transplant?
This autoimmune disorder may present with a red rash on the cheeks due to sun sensitivity.
This autoimmune disorder attacks neuromuscular junctions and presents as weak or flaccid muscles on one side of the body.