Review - Quarter 2 Unit Tests 089

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LR089 #1. In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was A) salivation elicited by meat powder B) the presentation of meat powder following a tone C) salivation elicited by the sound of food D) the sound of a tone E) salivation elicited by a tone

ANS: A) salivation elicited by meat powder REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #004 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #2. Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to: A) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness. B) practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness. C) practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues. D) neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness. E) be the exact opposite with their own children.

ANS: A) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 344 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #128 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #3. Carson used to really enjoy lime sherbet, and when he was in Mexico he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is A) the lime margaritas that Carson consumed B) the taste aversion that Carson develops when seeing anything lime C) the illness that followed the fourth margarita D) the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet E) the sight of lime sherbet

ANS: D) the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #009 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #4. Because Mandisa would always pick up her newborn daughter when she began to cry, her daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) ________ for crying. A) positive reinforcer B) conditioned stimulus C) unconditioned stimulus D) delayed reinforcement E) negative reinforcer

ANS: A) positive reinforcer REF: Myers8e(2) p. 329 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #056 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #5. The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves: A) secondary reinforcement. B) partial reinforcement. C) latent learning. D) delayed reinforcers. E) extrinsic motivation.

ANS: E) extrinsic motivation. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 335 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #098 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #6. Nolan has learned to drink a cup of coffee whenever he gets a tension headache because drinking coffee makes the pain of the headache go away. This is an example of A) classical conditioning B) negative reinforcement C) positive reinforcement D) escape learning E) avoidance learning

ANS: D) escape learning REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #144 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #7. A pigeon learns to peck at a disk lighted green to receive reinforcement, but not at a disk lighted red. This means that, for the pigeon, the color of the disk is A) a discriminative stimulus B) not a stimulus for reinforcement C) a punisher or a nonpunisher D) a reinforcer or a nonreinforcer E) a generalization stimulus

ANS: A) a discriminative stimulus REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #096 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #8. In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as: A) classical conditioning. B) latent learning. C) shaping. D) generalization. E) delayed reinforcement.

ANS: C) shaping. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 328 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #053 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #9. Marcy grows roses for the sheer joy of it; Jennifer grows them to sell at a profit. Marcy's behavior reflects ________, whereas Jennifer's behavior reflects ________. A) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation B) spontaneous recovery; acquisition C) secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement D) operant conditioning; classical conditioning E) a variable-ratio schedule; a fixed-ratio schedule

ANS: A) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation REF: Myers8e(2) p. 335 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #092 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #10. The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________. A) punishment; reinforcement B) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer C) negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer D) generalization; discrimination E) acquisition; extinction

ANS: A) punishment; reinforcement REF: Myers8e(2) p. 329, 332 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #080 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #11. If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates: A) delayed reinforcement. B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) modeling. E) shaping.

ANS: B) latent learning. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 334 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #095 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #12. Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer? A) termination of shock after removing one's finger from a live electric wire B) applause for an excellent piano recital C) a spanking for eating cookies before dinner D) a paycheck for working one week E) a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day

ANS: B) applause for an excellent piano recital REF: Myers8e(1) p. 330 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #067 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #13. When Kristen asks her grandmother for a cookie, her grandmother usually gives her one. Last week at the park, Kristen's mother was embarrassed when Kristen walked up to five different elderly ladies and asked them for cookies. Kristen's behavior illustrates the concept of A) observational learning B) stimulus discrimination C) unconditioned reinforcement D) stimulus generalization E) conditioned discrimination

ANS: D) stimulus generalization REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #101 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #14. Pavlov is to ________ as Skinner is to ________. A) latent learning; classical conditioning B) latent learning; observational learning C) observational learning; operant conditioning D) respondent behavior; operant behavior E) operant conditioning; classical conditioning

ANS: D) respondent behavior; operant behavior REF: Myers8e(2) p. 316, 326 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #048 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #15. Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears: A) are acquired through observational learning. B) may be produced through classical conditioning. C) can be used as negative reinforcers. D) can be removed through punishment. E) can interfere with the process of learning.

ANS: B) may be produced through classical conditioning. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 324 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #043 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #16. Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the: A) delayed reinforcer. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) conditioned reinforcer. D) conditioned stimulus. E) intermittent reinforcer.

ANS: B) unconditioned stimulus. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 324 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #041 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #17. In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________. A) US; CR B) UR; CR C) CS; US D) CR; UR E) US; CS

ANS: C) CS; US REF: Myers8e(1) p. 318 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #020 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #18. When Diana was three years old, she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pigeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of A) stimulus discrimination B) instinctive drift C) stimulus generalization D) stimulus indifference E) negative avoidance

ANS: C) stimulus generalization REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #053 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #19. For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented: A) shortly before the CR. B) at the same time as the US. C) shortly after the US. D) shortly after the CR. E) shortly before the US.

ANS: E) shortly before the US. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 318 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #017 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #20. The law of effect refers to the tendency to: A) observe only behaviors that are punished. B) learn associations between consecutive stimuli. C) lose intrinsic interest in an over-rewarded activity. D) learn in the absence of reinforcement. E) repeat behaviors that are rewarded.

ANS: E) repeat behaviors that are rewarded. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 327 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #050 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #21. Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________. A) CR; UR B) CS; UR C) UR; CR D) US; UR E) CS; US

ANS: E) CS; US REF: Myers8e(1) p. 319 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #022 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #22. A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient's fear. A) shaping B) extinction C) negative reinforcement D) generalization E) latent learning

ANS: B) extinction REF: Myers8e(2) p. 319, 324 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #043 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #23. John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n): A) behaviorist. B) operant conditioner. C) physiological psychologist. D) psychoanalyst. E) cognitive psychologist.

ANS: A) behaviorist. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 316 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #006 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #24. Marvin creates a television ad that alternates between images of garbage dumps and people drinking in a bar. He is hoping that people who watch the ad will develop negative feelings toward drinking after seeing these ads. In Marvin's ad the conditioned stimulus would be A) the images of people drinking in a bar B) the images of garbage dumps C) people's feelings of disgust when viewing garbage D) the feelings people have toward drinking before they see the ad E) the feelings people have toward drinking after they see the ad

ANS: A) the images of people drinking in a bar REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #204 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #25. Jerome is training to be a vacuum cleaner sales person. Initially, he got paid for each customer he called on, even if the customer did not ask for a demonstration. Currently, he only gets paid for actually demonstrating the product. Eventually, he will only get paid for actually closing a sale. In this example, Jerome's sales skills are being developed through the use of A) shaping B) classical conditioning C) negative reinforcement D) modeling E) programming

ANS: A) shaping REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #087 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #26. Pavlov is to classical conditioning as ________ is to ________. A) Bandura; observational learning B) Garcia; computer assisted instruction C) Skinner; latent learning D) Thorndike; modeling E) Watson; extinction

ANS: A) Bandura; observational learning REF: Myers8e(2) p. 343 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #109 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #27. When Lindsay was nine years old, the neighbor's chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of A) stimulus generalization B) negative avoidance C) stimulus discrimination D) instinctive drift E) secondary avoidance

ANS: C) stimulus discrimination REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #060 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #28. Positive punishment involves introducing a(n) ________ consequence of a certain behavior, and negative punishment involves withdrawing a(n) ________consequence of a certain behavior. A) undesirable; undesirable B) undesirable; desirable C) primary; secondary D) desirable; desirable E) desirable; undesirable

ANS: B) undesirable; desirable REF: Myers8e(1) p. 332 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #086 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #29. Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of: A) observational learning. B) discrimination. C) operant conditioning. D) spontaneous recovery. E) classical conditioning.

ANS: A) observational learning. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 341 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #104 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #30. The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that A) there is no difference between punishment and negative reinforcement in their effects on behavior B) punishment weakens undesirable behaviors, while negative reinforcement weakens desirable behaviors C) punishment has no effect on behavior and negative reinforcement strengthens behavior D) punishment strengthens undesirable behaviors, and negative reinforcement weakens undesirable behaviors E) punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior

ANS: E) punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #159 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #31. Charity used to really enjoy potato salad, and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately, the potato salad had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is A) a conditioned response B) an unconditioned response C) a conditioned illness D) an unconditioned stimulus E) a conditioned stimulus

ANS: A) a conditioned response REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #016 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #32. Jane, your teenage daughter, was ridiculed at school for wearing a particular style of shirt. Now, she no longer wears that style of shirt to school. Being ridiculed is an example of A) modeling B) negative reinforcement C) a secondary reinforcer D) positive reinforcement E) punishment

ANS: E) punishment REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #154 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #33. The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by: A) Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children. B) Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response. C) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats. D) Skinner's extinction studies with pigeons. E) Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants.

ANS: C) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 322 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #038 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #34. After training one of his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, Pavlov continued to present the tone periodically without the food, with the result that the dog A) kept responding at the same intensity, despite extended exposure to the tone alone B) would only intermittently respond to the tone C) initially responded to the tone at an even greater intensity than before D) stopped responding immediately E) gradually stopped responding to the tone

ANS: E) gradually stopped responding to the tone REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #039 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #35. Operant conditioning is another name for A) respondent conditioning B) classical conditioning C) instrumental learning D) respondent conditioning E) observational learning

ANS: C) instrumental learning REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #071 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #36. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? A) giving a child a sweet dessert as a reward for finishing his dinner B) cutting a child's TV time by 30 minutes each time she "talks back" C) paying a child $1 for each "A" received on her report card D) stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room E) taking away a child's toy for hitting a sibling

ANS: D) stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #138 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #37. A rat is placed on one side of a two-compartment shuttle box. For each trial, a light is turned on and is followed 10 seconds later by a painful electric shock for one minute. The rat can terminate the trial by jumping a barrier into the other compartment. If the rat jumps during the light, it has learned to ____ the shock; if the rat jumps during the shock, it has learned to ____ the shock. A) avoid; resist B) escape; escape C) avoid; avoid D) escape; avoid E) avoid; escape

ANS: E) avoid; escape REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #143 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #38. Despite the painful hangovers that follow his use of alcohol, Boris continues to drink because just a couple of drinks begin to reduce his anxiety. His continued drinking most clearly illustrates the power of: A) partial reinforcement. B) spontaneous recovery. C) extinction. D) generalization. E) immediate reinforcement.

ANS: E) immediate reinforcement. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 330 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #065 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #39. Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of: A) associative learning. B) intrinsic motivation. C) reinforcement. D) respondent behavior. E) observational learning.

ANS: A) associative learning. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 339 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #112 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #40. Ten-year-old Karen frequently watches violent movies on television. This is most likely to lead her to: A) become less fearful about being criminally assaulted. B) underestimate the actual frequency of violent crimes in the real world. C) not know the difference between reality and fantasy. D) experience less distress at the sight of other children fighting on the school playground. E) become more hesitant about personally starting a fight with another child.

ANS: D) experience less distress at the sight of other children fighting on the school playground. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 346 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #117 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #41. Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates: A) shaping. B) latent learning. C) discrimination. D) spontaneous recovery. E) delayed reinforcement.

ANS: D) spontaneous recovery. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 319 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #024 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #42. The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction: A) the CS is eliminated. B) the CR is eliminated. C) the UR is eliminated. D) the CS is suppressed. E) the CR is suppressed.

ANS: E) the CR is suppressed. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 319 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #025 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #43. Henry got a bad sunburn on his face when he was skiing last winter. Now, before he starts a day of skiing, he uses a sunscreen on his face to prevent another sunburn. In this case, avoiding a sunburn functions as A) a positive reinforcer for using a sunscreen B) a positive reinforcer for skiing C) an unconditioned stimulus for skiing D) a conditioned stimulus for skiing E) a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen

ANS: E) a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #140 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #44. Reinforcement is to operant conditioning as ________ is to observational learning. A) spontaneous recovery B) punishment C) respondent behavior D) modeling E) extinction

ANS: D) modeling REF: Myers8e(2) p. 341 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #105 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #45. Continuous reinforcement occurs when A) the behavior is difficult to learn with just one reinforcer B) it is not known in advance what responses will be reinforced C) every behavior engaged in by the subject is reinforced D) every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced E) reinforcement is delivered continually, regardless of whether or not a response is made

ANS: D) every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #109 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #46. When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent training experts would suggest that his mother should: A) return any snack foods that are already in her cart to the store shelves. B) give Hakim a token every time she throws a tantrum. C) continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums. D) offer to buy the snack food Hakim wants only if he quiets down and behaves himself. E) threaten to punish Hakim if he continues his tantrums.

ANS: C) continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 338 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #111 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #47. Rates of operant responding are ________ for fixed-ratio than for fixed-interval schedules; they are ________ for variable-ratio than for variable-interval schedules. A) lower; lower B) lower; higher C) equal; equal D) higher; higher E) higher; lower

ANS: D) higher; higher REF: Myers8e(1) p. 332 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #084 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #48. Mariah developed a fear of the water when she fell off a river raft last summer. This year she took swimming lessons and thought she had finally overcome her fear of water. She was eagerly looking forward to an upcoming rafting trip, however, as soon as she stepped onto the raft she was instantly terrified again. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as A) stimulus generalization B) extinction C) second-order conditioning D) spontaneous recovery E) disinhibition

ANS: D) spontaneous recovery REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #044 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #49. Cassie asked her father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as A) a reinforcer B) a conditioned response C) a conditioned stimulus D) a negative reinforcer E) a discriminative stimulus

ANS: A) a reinforcer REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #074 STA: LR Test 2008-09

LR089 #50. Latent learning can occur in the absence of: A) cognition. B) experience. C) reinforcement. D) extinction. E) classical conditioning.

ANS: C) reinforcement. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 334 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #089 STA: LR Test 2008-09

MM089 #1. Massed practice refers to learning material A) with large numbers of people (masses) B) in a quiet place with no distractions C) across several large sessions D) all at once E) through several different senses

ANS: D) all at once REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #189 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #2. Two students took a memory test. Twenty nouns were shown sequentially on a TV monitor. Mallory tried to think of rhymes for each word as it appeared on the monitor. Bailey tried to think of ways each word could be used in a sentence. Based on Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that A) both students should have equivalent recall of the words B) Mallory will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding C) Mallory will have better recall of the words because she used phonemic encoding D) Bailey will have poorer recall of the words because she used structural encoding E) Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding

ANS: E) Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #022 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #3. Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"? A) regression B) rationalization C) repression D) amnesia E) sublimation

ANS: C) repression REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #130 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #4. Echoic memory refers to: A) the automatic retention of incidental information about the timing and frequency of events. B) a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. C) a vivid memory of an emotionally significant event. D) information stored in auditory chunks. E) the encoded meanings of words and events in long-term memory.

ANS: B) a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 362 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #051 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #5. Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled: A) that the drivers of the vehicles were males. B) broken glass at the scene of the accident. C) that the drivers of the vehicles were intoxicated. D) that there were trucks involved in the accident rather than automobiles. E) the details of the accident with vivid accuracy.

ANS: B) broken glass at the scene of the accident. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 382 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #119 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #6. The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of: A) semantic encoding. B) implicit memory. C) iconic memory D) proactive interference. E) working memory.

ANS: E) working memory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 352 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #008 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #7. The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is A) short-term memory B) long-term memory C) working memory D) time-based memory E) auditory sensory memory

ANS: B) long-term memory REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #051 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #8. The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is A) storage retrieval acquisition B) storage encoding retrieval C) encoding retrieval storage D) encoding storage retrieval E) acquisition encoding retrieval

ANS: D) encoding storage retrieval REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #001 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #9. Your female friend recently got married and changed her last name to that of her husband's. You have difficulty remembering her new last name because of A) response inhibition B) proactive interference C) memory decay D) memory reconstruction E) retroactive interference

ANS: B) proactive interference REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #120 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #10. D ja vu refers to the: A) tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with one's current mood. B) eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event. C) an increase in synaptic priming potential after a brief rapid stimulation. D) unconscious activation of particular associations in memory. E) emotional arousal produced by events that prime us to recall associated events.

ANS: B) eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 373 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #090 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #11. Using the phrase "Every good boy does fine" to remember the order of musical notes is an example of a(n) A) an acrostic B) a mnemonic C) an acronym D) a narrative E) a rhyme

ANS: A) an acrostic REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #195 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #12. Long-term potentiation is a(n): A) neural basis for learning and memory. B) the unconscious loss of previous memories. C) disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information. D) process of getting information out of memory. E) elimination of anxiety-producing thoughts from conscious awareness.

ANS: A) neural basis for learning and memory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 365 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #063 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #13. After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of: A) state-dependent memory. B) the self-reference effect. C) the misinformation effect. D) the serial position effect. E) proactive interference.

ANS: C) the misinformation effect. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 383 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #121 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #14. Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as: A) chunking. B) the serial position effect. C) automatic processing. D) the spacing effect. E) mood-congruent memory.

ANS: D) the spacing effect. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 355 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #023 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #15. In considering the seven sins of memory, misattribution is to the sin of ________ as blocking is to the sin of ________. A) proactive interference; retroactive interference B) transcience; source amnesia C) intrusion; distortion D) retroactive interference; proactive interference E) distortion; forgetting

ANS: E) distortion; forgetting REF: Myers8e(1) p. 376 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #098 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #16. The inability to remember how Lincoln's head appears on a penny is most likely due to a failure in: A) implicit memory. B) retrieval. C) encoding. D) storage. E) iconic memory.

ANS: C) encoding. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 377 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #100 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #17. The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory. A) short-term B) implicit C) echoic D) iconic E) explicit

ANS: E) explicit REF: Myers8e(1) p. 368 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #074 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #18. Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A) short-term memory; long-term memory B) chunking; priming C) brainstem; hippocampus D) automatic processing; effortful processing E) explicit memory; implicit memory

ANS: E) explicit memory; implicit memory REF: Myers8e(1) p. 367 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #073 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #19. Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ________ memory. A) semantic B) implicit C) explicit D) sensory E) flashbulb

ANS: B) implicit REF: Myers8e(1) p. 367 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #072 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #20. You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now, you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of A) retroactive interference B) proactive interference C) anterograde amnesia D) retrograde amnesia E) motivated forgetting

ANS: A) retroactive interference REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #116 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #21. Even though Esmeralda was able to say all of her lines for the upcoming play without any errors in last night's rehearsal, her director insists that she run through them completely at least five additional times before opening night. In this case, the director is recommending that Esmeralda strengthen her memory of the lines using A) the link method B) overlearning C) the method of loci D) cramming E) massed practice

ANS: B) overlearning REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #184 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #22. Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength illustrates the use of: A) an acronym. B) the spacing effect. C) the method of loci. D) flashbulb memory. E) the "peg-word" system.

ANS: A) an acronym. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 360 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #045 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #23. Krista is 28 years old. She was burned quite badly in a kitchen accident when she was seven years old. Today, even though her parents still sometimes mention the kitchen accident, Krista has no memory of ever being burned. According to Freud, Krista may be A) experiencing retrograde amnesia B) experiencing the misinformation effect C) using repression to keep the distressing memories buried in the unconscious D) experiencing the sublimation effect E) showing signs of proactive interference

ANS: C) using repression to keep the distressing memories buried in the unconscious REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #131 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #24. After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from: A) amnesia. B) long-term potentiation. C) source misattribution. D) repression. E) mood-congruent memory.

ANS: A) amnesia. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 367 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #069 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #25. Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates: A) the next-in-line effect. B) acoustic encoding C) the serial position effect. D) sensory memory. E) flashbulb memory.

ANS: E) flashbulb memory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 350 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #002 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #26. Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. Jenkins and Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the individuals spent their time: A) physically exercising. B) watching television. C) sleeping. D) playing a card game. E) doing math problems.

ANS: C) sleeping. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 379-380 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #102 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #27. A relearning measure requires subjects to A) learn a task in two different ways B) memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved C) reproduce information on their own without any cues D) select previously learned information from an array of options E) indicate whether a given piece of information is familiar

ANS: B) memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #103 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #28. Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to: A) encoding. B) repression. C) chunking. D) automatic processing. E) imagery.

ANS: A) encoding. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 354, 372 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #018 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #29. Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of: A) chunking. B) implicit memory. C) priming. D) imagery. E) rehearsal.

ANS: E) rehearsal. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 354 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #018 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #30. When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake's memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________ failure. A) encoding B) rehearsal C) storage D) retrieval E) automatic processing

ANS: D) retrieval REF: Myers8e(2) p. 378 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #096 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #31. Taryn was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "pup, bucket, and loathe." Taryn's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list A) functionally B) structurally C) proactively D) semantically E) phonemically

ANS: D) semantically REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #018 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #32. Memory is best defined as: A) the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information. B) stored knowledge that has been semantically encoded. C) encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. D) the retrieval of stored information in precisely the same form in which it was encoded. E) the conscious encoding of information.

ANS: A) the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 349 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #001 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #33. Stress hormones facilitate the formation of new memories by: A) decreasing the availability of CREB. B) increasing the availability of glucose. C) increasing the availability of GABA. D) increasing the availability of dopamine. E) decreasing the availability of serotonin.

ANS: B) increasing the availability of glucose. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 366 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #067 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #34. The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is A) long-term memory B) flashbulb memory C) short-term memory D) sensory memory E) working memory

ANS: D) sensory memory REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #032 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #35. The psychologist Jean Piaget constructed a vivid, detailed memory of being kidnapped after hearing his nursemaid's false reports of such an event. His experience best illustrates: A) mood-congruent memory. B) the self-reference effect. C) implicit memory. D) proactive interference. E) source amnesia.

ANS: E) source amnesia. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 384 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #126 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #36. Wilder Penfield observed that electrical stimulation of the brains of wide-awake patients sometimes led them to report vivid recollections. Penfield incorrectly assumed that: A) the stimulation activated permanently stored memories. B) the brain stored information in the thalamus. C) the brain's physical memory trace decays gradually over time. D) his patients were inventing false memories. E) the brain's total storage capacity is very limited.

ANS: A) the stimulation activated permanently stored memories. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 364 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #059 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #37. Xavier was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: dog, pail, and hate. Later, he recalled these words as: "log, whale, and late." Xavier's errors in recall suggest that he had encoded the original word list A) phonemically B) retroactively C) morphemically D) semantically E) structurally

ANS: A) phonemically REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #016 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #38. Kiana was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "dig, paint, and hard." Kiana's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list A) semantically B) implicitly C) structurally D) phonemically E) functionally

ANS: C) structurally REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #014 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #39. If you were attempting to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is A) acquisition B) storage C) information registry D) retrieval E) encoding

ANS: D) retrieval REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #005 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #40. As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations. They were making use of: A) implicit memory. B) the spacing effect. C) the serial position effect. D) the next-in-line effect. E) the method of loci.

ANS: E) the method of loci. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 358 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #039 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #41. Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called: A) schemas. B) context effects. C) d j vu. D) retrieval cues. E) iconic traces.

ANS: D) retrieval cues. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 371 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #084 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #42. With rehearsal, information in short-term memory can be maintained for some time. Without rehearsal, the duration of short-term memory is A) no longer than 1 second B) about 5 minutes C) about 5 seconds D) about 20 seconds E) 1-2 minutes

ANS: D) about 20 seconds REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #038 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #43. An essay exam is most similar to the ____ method of measuring retention. A) encoding B) recall C) production D) relearning E) recognition

ANS: B) recall REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #102 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #44. Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be: A) distorted by our current assumptions. B) much more vivid if they are seldom rehearsed. C) difficult to retrieve but never completely lost. D) be repressed if not rehearsed. E) retrieved in the very same form and detail as they were originally encoded.

ANS: A) distorted by our current assumptions REF: Myers8e(1) p. 382 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #117 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #45. In normal situations, you tend to forget things which you have already finished while you remember the things you still have to do. This is called A) inattention. B) overlearning. C) positive transfer. D) Zeigarnik effect. E) repression.

ANS: D) Zeigarnik effect. REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 07 #028 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #46. Distributed practice refers to learning A) through several different senses B) all at once C) across several large sessions D) over several sessions E) from several different sources

ANS: D) over several sessions REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #188 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #47. Iconic memory refers to: A) the effortlessly processed incidental information about the timing and frequency of events. B) the encoded meanings of words and events in short-term memory. C) audio sounds encoded into short-term memory. D) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only about a second. E) the visually encoded images in long-term memory.

ANS: D) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only about a second. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 362 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #047 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #48. Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of: A) repression. B) the serial position effect. C) automatic processing. D) the spacing effect. E) priming.

ANS: E) priming. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 372 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #088 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #49. The temporary release of serotonin has been found to ________ memory formation, and the temporary release of stress hormones has been found to ________ memory formation. A) disrupt; facilitate B) facilitate; disrupt C) stop all; overload D) disrupt; disrupt E) facilitate; facilitate

ANS: E) facilitate; facilitate REF: Myers8e(2) p. 365, 366 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #060 STA: MM Test 2008-09

MM089 #50. Memory acquisition is to memory retention as ________ is to ________. A) recall; recognition B) encoding; storage C) rehearsal; relearning D) unconscious; conscious E) interference; repression

ANS: B) encoding; storage REF: Myers8e(2) p. 351 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #004 STA: MM Test 2008-09

CG089 #1. Functional fixedness refers to A) inability to discover the relations among the parts of a problem B) arriving at a particularly insightful solution to a problem C) continued use of problem solving strategies that have worked in the past D) focusing on information that is irrelevant to the solution of the problem E) not seeing a new function for a familiar object

ANS: E) not seeing a new function for a familiar object REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #109 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #2. Which of the following was cited by Whorf as evidence in support of the linguistic determinism hypothesis? A) Chimpanzees can use signs and gestures to communicate with other members of their own species. B) Infants tend to babble only in the morphemes of their language. C) People with no words for colors can still perceive color differences. D) Hopi Indians cannot readily think about the past because their language has no past tense for verbs. E) The generic pronoun "he" is just as likely to trigger images of women as of men.

ANS: D) Hopi Indians cannot readily think about the past because their language has no past tense for verbs. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 418 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #090 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #3. Mr. Potter thinks that all socialists are political liberals and that the governor of his state is a political liberal. Mr. Potter's fear of socialism is so strong that he readily accepts the clearly illogical conclusion that his state governor must be a socialist. His difficulty best illustrates: A) the framing effect. B) belief bias. C) functional fixedness. D) confirmation bias. E) the availability heuristic.

ANS: B) belief bias. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 407 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #053 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #4. In English, adjectives precede nouns. This is a rule of syntax, which is the: A) smallest speech unit that carries meaning. B) derivation of meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. C) most logical and methodical procedure for solving a problem. D) orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences. E) length of time between words when they are spoken.

ANS: D) orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #066 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #5. When solving problems containing numerical information A) you should start by figuring out which information is relevant to the problem B) it is a good idea to start by trying to figure out how to use the numerical information C) you should first find all of the information that is irrelevant to avoid confusion D) it is safe to assume that all of the information will be needed to solve the problem E) insight will typically produce the fastest, most accurate solution to the problem

ANS: A) you should start by figuring out which information is relevant to the problem REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #107 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #6. After learning that her two best friends had lost their jobs, Mariah began to grossly overestimate the national unemployment rate. Mariah's reaction best illustrates the consequences of: A) the framing effect. B) the belief perseverance phenomenon. C) the availability heuristic. D) confirmation bias. E) the representativeness heuristic.

ANS: C) the availability heuristic. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 402 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #037 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #7. Experimental participants reviewed two research studies, one supporting and the other refuting the crime-deterring effectiveness of capital punishment. Afterward, the opinions of those who initially favored the use of capital punishment became ________ favorable toward its use. The opinions of those who initially opposed the use of capital punishment became ________ favorable toward its use. A) more; more B) less; less C) more; less D) less; more

ANS: C) more; less REF: Myers8e(2) p. 407 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #054 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #8. Rylee's algebra teacher is amazed at the creativity Rylee shows in solving homework problems. He seldom uses the same method on two consecutive problems, even when the problems are very similar in content and structure. Although Rylee makes lots of mistakes in algebra, he is unlikely to experience A) mental set in his problem solving B) functional fixedness in his problem solving C) noncompensatory problem solving D) underregularization in his problem solving E) overregularization in his problem solving

ANS: A) mental set in his problem solving REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #117 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #9. The word "cats" contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s). A) 4; 2 B) 2; 4 C) 2; 1 D) 4; 3 E) 4; 1

ANS: A) 4; 2 REF: Myers8e(1) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #064 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #10. Despite overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator McEwan was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported her in past elections remained convinced of her political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates: A) functional fixedness. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) belief perseverance. E) the framing effect.

ANS: D) belief perseverance. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 407 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #055 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #11. When Graham is printing copies from the computer in the computer classroom, the paper keeps jamming in the machine. He takes the paper out of the paper tray, fans it, and then flips it over, so the other side of the paper feeds first. This is the way he solves similar problems on the photocopy machine at the office where he works. In this case, Graham's method of solving the problem is consistent with the problem-solving heuristic known as A) means-end analysis B) searching for analogies C) working backward D) trial-and-error E) heuristics

ANS: B) searching for analogies REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #131 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #12. Which of the following is NOT a cognitive activity? A) remembering something B) solving a problem C) learning a language D) blinking at something E) making a decision

ANS: D) blinking at something REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #004 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #13. With respect to the debate over the process of language development, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________. A) Whorf; Chomsky B) Chomsky; Skinner C) Whorf; Skinner D) Skinner; Whorf E) Skinner; Chomsky

ANS: B) Chomsky; Skinner REF: Myers8e(1) p. 413-414 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #076 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #14. "Apple is to fruit as hamburger is to ____" is an example of A) a deductive reasoning problem B) a series-completion problem C) an analogy problem D) an arrangement problem E) the representativeness heuristic

ANS: C) an analogy problem REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #102 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #15. Esmeralda wants to use her roommate's computer to work on her term paper. However, the roommate has password protection on the computer's boot sequence. Rather than starting at "a" and systematically testing every possible word in the English language, Esmeralda makes some educated guesses about the passwords, based on what she knows about her roommate. In this case, Esmeralda is using A) an algorithm to get past the password protection B) reframing to get past the password protection C) representativeness to get past the password protection D) functional fixedness to get past the password protection E) a heuristic to get past the password protection

ANS: E) a heuristic to get past the password protection REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #125 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #16. The smallest speech units that carry meaning are called: A) phenotypes. B) concepts. C) morphemes. D) phonemes. E) prototypes.

ANS: C) morphemes. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #063 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #17. The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to: A) search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions. B) cling to one's initial conceptions even in the face of them being discredited. C) overestimate the degree to which other people will confirm our beliefs. D) overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. E) judge the likelihood of events on the basis of how easily we can remember examples of them.

ANS: A) search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 399 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #021 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #18. Jerome believes that his 4-year-old grandson is a hyperactive child because the boy's constant movement resembles Jerome's prototype of hyperactivity. Jerome's thinking best illustrates: A) belief perseverance. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) the framing effect. E) functional fixedness.

ANS: C) the representativeness heuristic. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 401 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #032 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #19. The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to: A) disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments. B) judge objects only in terms of their functional utility. C) not see a problem from a different point of view. D) make judgments in a very inefficient, timeconsuming fashion. E) judge event likelihood solely on the basis of event memorability.

ANS: A) disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 401 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #032 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #20. Which of the following statements concerning functional fixedness is MOST accurate? A) Compared to young children, older children and adults are less likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. B) All age groups are likely to show evidence of functional fixedness, especially when solving problems using unfamiliar objects. C) Compared to older children and adults, young children are less likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. D) Compared to all other age groups, adolescents are most likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. E) Compared to all other age groups, young children are more likely to show functional fixedness.

ANS: C) Compared to older children and adults, young children are less likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #113 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #21. Marc loves to solve anagrams, and spends a great deal of time working through books of anagrams. It appears that Marc enjoys problems that require A) inducing structure B) deductive reasoning C) arrangement D) analogical reasoning E) transformation

ANS: C) arrangement REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #105 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #22. Working backward is a good strategy to follow when A) you can recognize the similarity between two problems B) a problem is unsolvable by heuristics C) a problem has obvious subgoals D) the problem does not have a well-specified goal E) you have many options available at the beginning of a problem, but few options at the end

ANS: E) you have many options available at the beginning of a problem, but few options at the end REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #126 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #23. The connotation of a word consists of A) a complex interaction between the word's phonology and syntax B) the separate sounds that make up the word C) novel messages created from a finite number of symbols D) its emotional overtones and secondary implications E) its dictionary definition

ANS: D) its emotional overtones and secondary implications REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #025 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #24. The sentences "She ate an apple" and "She an apple ate" have ______ surface structure and ______ deep structure. A) the same; the same B) the same; a different C) a different; a different D) a different; the same E) a strong; a weak

ANS: D) a different; the same REF: Myers8e(2) p. 414-415 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #084 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #25. Two-year-old Dirk's sentences "Dad come," "Mom laugh," and "Truck gone" are examples of: A) telegraphic speech. B) universal grammar. C) heuristics. D) babbling. E) mental sets.

ANS: A) telegraphic speech. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 413 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #074 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #26. Christmas is to holiday as ________ is to ________. A) availability heuristic; representativeness heuristic B) algorithm; heuristic C) heuristic; fixation D) prototype; category E) category; prototype

ANS: D) prototype; category REF: Myers8e(2) p. 396 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #008 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #27. To promote cognitive efficiency, concepts are often organized into: A) mental sets. B) mental sets. C) algorithms. D) category hierarchies. E) neural networks.

ANS: D) category hierarchies. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 396 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #005 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #28. Word meaning is to word order as ________ is to ________. A) nomenclature; semantics B) semantics; syntax C) morpheme; phoneme D) concept; prototype E) phoneme; grammar

ANS: B) semantics; syntax REF: Myers8e(2) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #068 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #29. When Fred pronounced the words "this" and "that," he noticed that they share a common: A) morpheme. B) phoneme. C) phenotype. D) algorithm. E) prototype.

ANS: B) phoneme. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 410-411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #061 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #30. Jamilla systematically tried each successive key on her dad's key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of: A) functional fixedness. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) belief perseverance. E) an algorithm.

ANS: E) an algorithm. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 397 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #015 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #31. Series-completion problems are examples of which of Greeno's (1978) categories? A) transformation B) recategorization C) arrangement D) inducing structure E) clustering

ANS: D) inducing structure REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #100 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #32. The requirement that a declarative sentence have both a noun phrase and a verb phrase is an example of a A) transformational rule B) heuristic C) morpheme D) phoneme E) rule of syntax

ANS: E) rule of syntax REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #027 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #33. Maribel is on a jury, and she is already convinced that the defendant in the case is not guilty. She listens very attentively to everything the defense attorneys have to say, but she tends to pay less attention when the prosecution is presenting evidence. In this instance, Maribel is showing evidence of A) the base-rate fallacy B) the conjunction fallacy C) the availability heuristic D) the overconfidence effect E) a confirmation bias

ANS: E) a confirmation bias REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #195 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #34. People told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10,000 people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk is one-tenth of 1 percent. This best illustrates the importance of: A) functional fixedness. B) framing. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) belief perseverance. E) confirmation bias.

ANS: B) framing. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 406 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #049 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #35. Heuristics are: A) ways to reduce algorithms when using insight. B) mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people. C) simple thinking strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently. D) methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems. E) problem-solving strategies involving the use of trial and error.

ANS: C) simple thinking strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 398 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #016 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #36. Chimpanzees are capable of learning to: A) use computer keyboards to communicate with other chimps. B) understand spoken words. C) string signs together into a meaningful sequence. D) to push buttons in a sequence. E) do all of the above.

ANS: E) do all of the above. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 426 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #101 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #37. Vivian is making quiche for the very first time. She carefully follows the step-by-step directions provided in her cookbook. In this case, Vivian is using A) a heuristic to help her prepare the quiche B) functional fixedness to help her prepare the quiche C) analogies to help her prepare the quiche D) framing to help her prepare the quiche E) an algorithm to help her prepare the quiche

ANS: E) an algorithm to help her prepare the quiche REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #123 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #38. Although Steve was certain that he answered between 70 and 80 items correctly on his biology test, he actually was right on only 55 items. Steve's misjudgment of his test performance illustrates: A) the belief perseverance phenomenon. B) the framing effect. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) overconfidence. E) confirmation bias.

ANS: D) overconfidence. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 403 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #043 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #39. Jenna is 14 months old and uses only "bottle, no, up, bye-bye, mama, and dada" when she talks. However, when the family is on their way to visit Jenna's grandmother, and her father tells Jenna to get her blue bunny from the bedroom and bring it with her, Jenna quickly runs to get the bunny. This episode demonstrates that A) toddlers' receptive vocabularies are larger than their productive vocabularies B) toddler's understand fewer "action" words than they can say C) Jenna is able to overextend her current vocabulary D) toddlers' productive vocabularies are larger than their receptive vocabularies E) infants have difficulty pronouncing phonemes they have never heard

ANS: A) toddlers' receptive vocabularies are larger than their productive vocabularies REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #042 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #40. People more easily detect male prejudice against women than female prejudice against men because the former more closely resembles their prejudice: A) heuristic. B) prototype. C) algorithm. D) premise. E) fixation.

ANS: B) prototype. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 397 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #012 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #41. Applying the behaviorist viewpoint to language development, B. F. Skinner emphasized that language is acquired through: A) children's imitation of the words and grammar modeled by parents and others. B) the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly. C) the association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities. D) the basic principles of operant conditioning. E) all of the above.

ANS: E) all of the above. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 414 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #076 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #42. When given a candle, tacks, and a box of matches and asked to mount the candle on a wall, people often fail to think of using the matchbox as a candleholder. This best illustrates: A) confirmation bias. B) functional fixedness. C) the framing effect. D) the availability heuristic. E) overconfidence.

ANS: B) functional fixedness. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 400, 402 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #028 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #43. The sudden comprehension of the double meaning of a humorous pun best illustrates: A) the representativeness heuristic. B) belief perseverance. C) insight. D) the availability heuristic. E) the framing effect.

ANS: C) insight. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 398 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #020 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #44. Chomsky's theory of language development suggests that children have an inborn: A) language acquisition device. B) understanding of the syntax of their language. C) linguistic prototype. D) surface structure. E) category hierarchy.

ANS: A) language acquisition device. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 414 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #081 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #45. Kailee has learned the word "kitty," but she uses this word when she is referring to cats, bunnies, squirrels, and other small furry animals. Kailee's use of this word illustrates A) babbling B) telegraphic speech C) fast mapping D) semantic slanting E) overextension

ANS: E) overextension REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #046 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #46. When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n): A) algorithm. B) heuristic. C) concept. D) phoneme. E) mental set.

ANS: C) concept. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 396 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #003 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #47. A mental set is a: A) conclusion regarding to employ fixations or insight. B) group of conclusions derived from certain assumptions or general principles. C) methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems. D) tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past. E) mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.

ANS: D) tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 400 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #027 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #48. Fast mapping is A) mapping words to underlying concepts after only one exposure B) the type of play a child engages in at an early age C) understanding the meaning of words after 2-3 exposures D) the development of a mental representation of one's environment E) the pacing activity associated with genetics, allowing for anticipation of motivational events

ANS: A) mapping words to underlying concepts after only one exposure REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #043 STA: CG Test 2008-09

CG089 #49. You are listening to 2-year-old Annie as she says "No eat. No like." She is trying to let you know that she is not going to eat her broccoli because she doesn't like it. Annie's communication illustrates the use of A) overregularization B) overextension C) underextension D) telegraphic speech E) semantic slanting

ANS: D) telegraphic speech REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #052 STA: CG Test 2008-09

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