Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 19.1 Vocabulary

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Prokaryotes

unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus

Bacilli

rod-shaped prokaryotes

Cocci

Spherical prokaryotes

spirilla

Spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes

chemoheterotrophs

heterotrophic prokaryotes that must take in organic materials for both energy and supply of carbon

photoheterotrophs

heterotrophic prokaryotes use sunlight for energy, photosynthesis, but also need organic compounds as a carbon source

photoautotrophs

autotrophic prokaryotes that use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds and oxygen

chemoautotrophs

prokaryotes that make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide. do not require lights a source of energy

obligate aerobes

organisms that require a constant supply of oxygen in order to survive

obligate anaerobes

organisms that live in the absence of oxygen

facultative anaerobes

organisms that can survive with or without oxygen

binary fission

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells

conjugation

a hollow bridge forms between two bacterial cells and genes move from one cell to the other

endospore

type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm

nitrogen fixation

the process of converting nitrogen gas into a form plants can use

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