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Fatty acids oxidized as fuels are principally...

long-chain fatty acids released from adipose tissue triacylglycerol stores

major fatty acids that are oxidized:

palmitate, oleate, and stearate

lipolysis is activated by

decreased insulin levels
increased levels of insulin couterregulatory hormones
glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine

Energy is derived from oxidation of fatty acids to

acetyl CoA in the pathway of B-oxidation

triacylglycerols

three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone

lipases

enzymes that release long-chain fatty acids from adipose tissue during fasting and other conditions of metabolic need

Albumin

a major serum protein that transports the hydrophobic fatty acids

fatty acids must be activated to ____ before they can participate in B-oxidation and other pathways

acyl CoA derivatives
the fatty acid reacts with an ATP to form a high-energy fatty acyl AMP and pyrophosphate
AMP is then exchanged for CoA
Pyrophosphate bond is later used for energy

Three types of rxns in the B-oxidation pathway

hydration
oxidation
carbon-carbon bond cleavage

unsaturated fats have a higher/lower melting point than saturated fats

lower
saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature

three fatty acids essential in diet

arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic

the energy yield from unsaturated fatty acids is lower because

it has to be oxidized first which requires energy

very long chain and branched chain fatty acids are...

broken down in the peroxisomes until they are more manageable

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