Western Civilization Chapter 3

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Polis

a down or city or village that surrounds a country side. where they practiced political social and religious activities.

hoplites

heavily armed infantry men who wore bronze or leather helmets, breastplates and wore shin guards. carried around a 9 ft long spear.

phalanx

rectangular formation in tight order, usually 8 ranks deep

tyrants

rulers who seized power by force and who were not subject to the law.

perioikoi

free inhabitants not critizens who were required to pay taxes and perform military serice for Sparta.

helots

bound to the land and forced to work on farms and as household servants for Spartans.

oligarchy

two kings who ruled. maily responcible for military affairs and served as leaders of Sparta.

Sophists

philosophers who though that it was foolish that the universe was beyond the reach of the human mind.

rhetoric

-the art of persuasive speaking
-debates and swaying an audience

Socratic method

employs a question-and-answer technique to lead pupils to see things for themselves using their own reason.

mystery religions

religion that had initiation into secret rites that promised a more emotional involvement with spiritual forces and a great hope of immortality (live forever)

metics

resident foreigners who received the protection of the laws

hetairai (had-r-i)

"female companions" they were usually ex-slaves or foreigners

how did the geography of Greece affect Greek history?

Greece was in a small area, surrounded by mountains and the ocean. the terrain was was mountainous so the city-states were cut off from one another. They each had their own separate ways of life. they never talked to their neighbors.

Who was Homer?

-wrote the Iliad and the odyssey.
-greatest poet of all time.

Why was homers work used as the basis for Greek education?

Homers writings consisted of hero's. everybody wanted to be like them, so they looked up to these books.this books tough courage. describe the dark ages in his books.

what were the chief features a polis (city-state)?

town, city or village and its surrounding countryside. the main part in the middle is where they practiced political, social and religious activities.

How did the major city-states(polis) of Athens and Sparta differ?

Spartans were mostly for the gov't. Their military was very strong. Athens was more democracy and its city-states had more power to the people.

What did the Greeks mean by democracy?

ruled by the people and power to the people.

what ways was the Athenian political system a democracy?

they were separated from all the other city-states and had their own independence, so they made up their own laws.

What effect did the Persian War have on Greek civilization?

it made everyone afraid the Spartans. they were stronger and had very good military tactics. caused great destruction to the Greek civilizations.

what effect did the Peloponnesian War have on Greek civilization?

lots of people died. from the plague it wiped out 1/3rd of the population after math cost a lot.

What ideals was classical Greek art based?

mostly based on people, they carved statues. also and plays became very big.

How were classical Greek art expressed?

through writing, plays, stories, painting

What questions did the Greek philosophers pose, and what were their answers?

Greek philosophers said to question society and the world around them. they studied human behavior.

Arthur Evens named what after the minos?

"minoan"

Iliad

tale of greek hero Achilles and how the "wrath of Achilles" led to disaster.

odyssey

an epic romance about journey of Odysseus how he is reunited with his wife.

The Aeolian

located in northern and central Greece

Dorians

southern western Greece

Corinth

famous state in Greece under rule of oligarchy led by members of Bacchiad family.

Cypselus

member of the family. wanted hi to overthrow the oligarchy and assume sole control of Corinth.

gerousia

council of elders

apella

assembly of all male citizens.

ecclesia

assembly of full citizens, had few power

Solon

cancled all current land debts, outlawed new loans, freed people who had fallen into salvery for debt.

Hellenistic

a new type of order for Hellenistic peroid.

gymnasium

athletic institution, envoled into a secondary school

Epicureanism

Epictus greated this school, they followed the docturine of "pleasure"

Stoicisum

most popular philosophy of hellenistic world. concerned how individuals find happyness.

mystery religions

religions that were different from the others. people would gather together in secret and pray. they believed in eternal life and believed in one god or goddess.

syncretism

all religions have the same beings but they just have different names.

how was alexander able to gather together his empire?

his men were more skilled, and his men moved quickly. and was an outstanding mulitary leader and had superb tactical skills.

what might alexanders rule have been like if he had lived longer?

he would of had a lot more land. and his empire would of been even more powerful

What were the main features of the politcal of the Hellenistic kingdoms?

was a monarchy, relied on greeks and masidonians to form the rulling class.

how did the new political systems differ from those of the greek city-states?

they were a monarchy

what were the main social developments in the hellenistic world?

women were more excepted, slavery increased, education changed,

What achievements in literature, art, science, medicine, and philosophy occurred during the Hellenistic period?

it was a period of cultural accomplishments. became more advanged, people changed the style of art, science they got more experienced and medicine became important for everday people.

Which religions were prominient during the Hellenistic period?

Epicureanism, mystery religons

What does the religions popularity suggest about hellenistic society?

form many people, the search for personal meaning remined unfufilled.

Island of Crete

first society of Greeks, capital knossus

Arther Evens

discovered the island, he found the people of crete called " minons"

minons

they were smart, had plumming great builders, they started construction of knossus. their art is very important, peaceful people, had no weapons. great traiders, (located between greece and egypt.)

when did minonan society fail?

1380 b.c.

Geography had a huge role in socitety during greek times?

their were mountains, valleys, banks, harbors, bc of mountains and valleys broken down into city-states.

Mycenaean

first greek mainland civilization

Hellenes

refered themselfs and their home, they were different then mioans.

mycenae

major city, ruled by seperate kings, became rivles of greeks

War against Troy

Troy its geography determints its fate.

Doric Tribes

moved in, called "dorians" invaded mycenaens

Dark age of Greace

1100-800 BC
-decline of culture
-writing went away
-nuthing build
-shortage of food/ less trade

Rebirth/ Renessance

800-600 BC "greek renessance"
-writing started
-epic poetry

Zuce

Father of Gods, lives on mount alimpus

Hera

Zuces wife, she is jealous

Appolo

god of sun, music, poetry, meds

Aphrodiety

goddness of love

posidon

god of underworld

Athina

godess of wisdom

Hadies

god of underworld

hermies

messenger of Zuce

Ares

god of war

Agamemnon

king of miceney, comander and cheaf of greek forces

Helen

greek wife, had a face that lonched 1000 ships

homer

characters are in universal times.
people relate to it
believes there are ethical values people should live by.

Doric

style of columbs during Greek times, plane edging at the top of the columbs

What were the main features of the military organizaton of the hellenistic kingdoms?

created and maintained their kingsdoms by military force.used phalansx and calvery (main form of military strateigy)

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