reference to something outside the text—another work of art
Obvious and intentional exaggeration—for rhetoric
Where the speaker deliberately portrays the situation as less serious or important than it really is. "It's just a flesh wound." (Black Knight, after having both arms cut off, in Monty Python's the Holy Grail)
a seemingly contradictory assertion that may have some truth in it. Ex. "What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young" (George Bernard Shaw). Ex. War is peace; Freedom is slavery; Ignorance is strength. (George Orwell, 1984)
a descriptive word, phrase or title: ex. "Frederick the Great," It can also mean name calling.
using a more polite term for a coarse or unpleasant term
an extended metaphor—often the basis for an entire poem. "Love is a rose... blush as petals...steadfast as the stem...spiteful as thorns...enduring as roots...."
Metonymy (also Synecdoche)
a figure of speech consisting of the use of the name of one thing for that of another with which it is associated ("The white house said today"—meaning, the press secretary of the current administration said); The use of a part of something to represent the whole.("Ten sails crossed the sea" -meaning, ten ships crossed the ocean). Note: The College Board has announced that Synecdoche and metonymy are the same thing.
repetition of initial sounds
the use of a word whose sound imitates the act or thing it names. The "buzzing" of a bee, for example, or the sound, "boom."
An objective statement
is completely unbiased. It is not affected by the speaker's previous experiences or tastes. It is verifiable by looking up facts. Generally, one cannot argue with an objective statement.
A subjective statement
has been colored by the character of the speaker or writer. A subjective statement is an opinion; it often has a bias. Subjective statements are often the root of arguments and are "subject" to personal opinion.
an overused statement or idea.
when the literal meaning is opposite the actual meaning.
the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies. Wicked Witches adhere to the Crone archetype.
deliberately dramatic or theatrical.
cleverly and often ironically or grimly humorous. It technically means "bent," like the smile of an ironic, clever person.
an act or instance of placing things/words/concepts close together or side by side for comparison or contrast. A horrible troll holding a beautiful orchid, for example.
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in a balanced phrase or clause. "Everybody doesn't like something, but nobody doesn't like Sara Lee." "Fight hate with love."