Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 21

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mechanical barriers

intact skin and mucous membranes

chemical barriers

mucous membranes that use secretions as defensive functions

lysozyme

discourages the growth of pathogens on the surface of the eye

reflexes

removal of pathogens

reflexes

sneezing, coughing, vomiting and diarrhea

motile

wander around the body through the blood and tissue fluid

diapedesis

process of squeezing through tiny gaps

chemotaxis

signaling to attract phagocytes

inflammation

responses the body make when confronted by an irritant

infection

an irritant that is caused by a pathogen and becomes inflammed

histamine

horomone that is released that causes the blood vessels in an injured tissue to dilate

pyrexia

fever

fever

abnormal elevation in the body temperature

pyrogens

fever-producing subtances

pus

thick, yellowish accumulation of dead material

febrile seizures

seizures resulting from an elevated body temperature

interferons

group of proteins secreted by cells infected by a virus

complement proteins

circulate in the blood in their inactive form; attaches to the bacterium's outer membrane and punches holes in it;

complement proteins

holes in the membrane allow fluid and electrolytes to flow into the bacterium, causing it to burst and die

natural killer cells

special type of lymphocyte that acts nonspecifically to kill a variety of cells

antigen

substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies

antigen

found on the surface of many substances such as pathogens, red blood cells, pollens, etc

antigenic

substances that display antigens

antigen

substances are attacked by lymphocytes

specific immunity

provides protection against one specfic substance but not others

immunotolerance

recognition of self

autoimmune disease

immune system attacks it own cells

t cells

attack antigens directly through cell-to-cell contact

b cells

interact with the antigen indirectly through the secretion of anitbodies

humoral immunity

antibodies are carried by the blood and other tissue fluid

antigen presentation

macrophage's ability to push the antigen to its surface

clone

group of identical cells formed from the same parent cell

killer t cells

destroy the antigen(pathogen) through the use of punching holes in the pathogen's cell membrane and secreting substances

helper t cells

secrete a lymphokine that stimulates T cells and B cells and in general enhances the immune response

memory t cells

quickly reproduce thus allowing a faster immune response to occur

immunoglobins

antibodies secreted by the B cells are proteins; found primarily in the plasma

immunoglobin G

antibody found in plasma and body fluids; particularly effective against certain bacteria, viruses and toxins

immunoglobin A

antibody found in secretions of exocrine glands

immunoglobin A

breastmilk, tears and gastric juice helps protect against infection

immunoglobin M

antibody found in blood plasma; anit-A and anti-B antibodies associated with red blood cells

agglutinate

clumping together

antibody titer

level of antibodies in the blood

genetic immunity

genetic information that provides immunity to certain diseases

vaccine

antigen-bearing subtance such as a pathogen, injected into a person in an attempt to stimulate antibody production

naturally acquired immunity

long acting; body produces antibodies against an invader once it is exposed to it

passive acquired immunity

short acting; happens when a person is given an antitoxin or antiserum containing antibodies or antitoxins

naturally acquired passive immunity

temporary, last until infant's immune system matures

naturally acquired passive immunity

fetus receive antibodies from mother thru placenta or breast feeding

artificially acquired immunity

long acting

artificially acquired immunity

immunizations or vaccines

artificially acquired immunity

introduction of killed or live pathogens that have reduced virulence that is recognized as antigens by the immune system but are not able to cause disease

artificially acquired immunity

antigens stimulates the formation of antibodies

vaccine

solution of dead or attenuated pathogens

toxoid

altered toxin

immune globulin

obtained from a donor(human or animale) and contains antibodies

immune globulin

antibodies are formed in the donor in response to a specific antigen

antitoxins

antibodies that neutralize the toxins secreted by the pathogens but have no effect on the pathogens themselves

antivenoms

antibodies that combat the effects of the poisonous venom of snakes

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