Psych. Exam 1 & 2 Concepts to Know
|The Beginings of Psychology||Psychology as a science can be traced to December of 1879 when Wilhelm (Bill) Wundt opend his lab in Germany at the University of Leipzig.|
|What is Psychology||Involves the Scientific Study of the behavior and Mental Processes of organisms (Man and Lower Animals).|
|Stager of Sleep||We pass through 5 stages if sleep, several time a night.|
0. Pre-Sleep - Light sleep, Not true sleep, more awake than sleep, sleep talking occurs more commonly during this level but can occur at any level.
1. Light sleep level where your Brain is quite active, even though you are often quiet physically.
2. You spend 40 to 60% of sleep in this stage.
3. Transition Phase - This is a stage of deeper sleep but is a brief transition phase between 2 and 4.
4. Delta Waves Predoiminate - Deepest sleep of all, sleep walking occurs in stage 4. You are typically hard to awaken during stages 3 and 4.
5. REM Sleep - Rapid Eye Movement At about one hour into your nights sleep you move from stage 4 to 3 to 2 to 1 and then REM sleep begins. This eye movement implies you are dreaming. This is also the phase of sleep when physical paralyses occurs and if you are like most people, your longest period of very deep sleep occurs early in the night.
|Sleeptalking||0. Pre-Sleep - Light sleep, Not true sleep, more awake than sleep, sleep talking occurs more commonly during this level but can occur at any level.|
|Sleepwalking||Walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep, usually during Stage 4 sleep, this is the deepest sleep level when Delta Waves are predominate. There appears to be no relationship between personality problems and sleep walking. As we grow older and deep Stage 4 sleep diminishes, so do night terrors and sleepwalking. after age 40, sleepwalking is rare.|
|What Part of the Brain Controls Dreaming?||This is mostly a function of your Right Brain Hemisphere, (which is the creative side of the brain.)|
|Why we Dream?||Researchers who see dreams as information processing, believe that dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day's experiences in our memory. Often reliving the events of the day.|
|Lucid Dreaming||You are aware that you are dreaming while you are dreaming.|
|Incubus Nightmares||Also called Night Terrors - Typically occuring during stage 4 sleep, rather than REM sleep. Usually had by young children and they often don't remember the dream, they will awake and then return to sleep.|
|Biological Rythms||People differ greatly in Biological Rythms thus: Morning People have their highest level of energy in the morning rather than evening. But, Evening People have their higher levels of energy in the evening not morning. Of these two - Morning People have the highest over all level of energy.|
|Rythms of Consiciousness & Sleep||Circdian Rythms are the daily rythms which repeat themselves every 24 hr's. Ex: Sleep-Wake Cycles, Body Temp Fluctuation, Blood Sugar Changes, Blood Pressure Changes, Changes in Harmone Levels.|
|Bright Light Treatment|| SAD seems to be due to abnormal Melatonin Rythems, that can be reset through use of bright light. Some people get whats called the Brite Light Treatment. |
Low levels of vitamin D are related to fatige and Depression
|SAD||Seasonal Affective Disorder, The Fall & Winter time blues, you gain weight due to overeating in late fall and sleep alot in Winter, but in Spring you are energized.|
|DRUGS||In it's broades sense, a drug is a substance that alters cellular activity in the body. Even vitamins (like Niacin) become drugs when taken in large doses.|
|Endorphins||This is the bodies own naturaly produced pain killer and are produced during exersise, child birth, and when you are injured. They create a high and reduce pain. Drug addicts experience great pain when they stop taking their drug of choice (what ever that may be) because their bodies have stopped producing their own endorphins or natural pain killer.|
|Analgesics||Pain Killers - Asprin is the most common analgesic.|
|Amphetamines|| These are more powerful uppers and include:|
Dexedrine & Benzedrine
These increase heart rate, bloodpresure, energy and may make you more talkative.
|Stimulants||Also called uppers - Increase activity in the Sympathetic Nervous system, leading to increses in heart rate, blood pressure, strength etc. Caffeine is the most commonly used stimulant. It is found in coffee, cola's and chocolate.|
|Affects of Cocaine||This drug stimulates the cortex of the brain, producing sleeplessnes, high energy, optimism, increased self estee, and sometimes a sense of being more competent than or superior to others.|
|Stages Of Sexual Response|| 4 - Stages by: Masters and Johnson|
1. Excitement 2. Plateau
3. Orgasm 4. Resolution
Ther is an additional stage mentioned called the
(5) Refractory Stage -
The resting period after orgasm. (Men often needing more time than Women before performing again.)
|Experamental Method|| The reveling of causes of behavior depends on the use of the __________ Method, which envolves:|
a) Formulation of a Hypothesis (or a workin hunch or your best guess about a cause)
|Random Assignment||#1. The Experemental Group and #2. The Control Group. These are two or more groups who are CHOSEN RANDOMLY and given an experamental treatment.The treatment of either the Independent Variable, also called the Causal Variable. This is usually the Item you are trying to prove something about. or the Placebo or Dummy Pill|
|Random Study||To equalize or Spread Evenly all of the conditions in the experiment except the one condition, which is the Independant or Causal Variable is a __________.|
|Independent Variable or Casual Variable||The question you are seeking to answer through the experiment (the one factor your use) The Variable is manipulated by the expermentor. Ex: When trying to prove wheather or not a subject is given Pozac or the Placebo, do they experience more or less depression?|
|Dependant Variable or the Effect Variable||The Meassureable Outcome of the Experiment or the Effect the Independant Varible has had in the Experiment. In this case It is Level of Depression of the subjects.|
|Experiments||These are often done in the Lab or an artificial environment or atmospher to some degree.The environment is considered a more accurate way ot finding out, or determining cause.|
|Naturalistc Observation|| This is a where a researcher observes and records the behavior of people in daily life activities without interfering.|
Ex: Observing 25 - 5 year olds at a Birth Day party.
|Corelational Studies||Where you assess the degree of relationship between 2-Variables.|
Ex:Smoking & Lung Cancer = A Positive Corelation in that both move in the same direction-(The more you smike, The more likely you are to get Lung Cancer)
The Negative Corelation would be=When the relationship of the 2 Variables move in opposite directions-(The more you smoke, The less you Live)
However Corelational Evidence is Never Proof.
|Case Study||Is an in-depth study of a Person over some time period.|
|Double Blind Experimental Study||Neither the experamentor nor the Subjects are aware of what is being given to whom. (Prozac or Placebo)|
|Right Brain Hemisphere||Controls Visual Spatail Understanding.|
|Left Brain Hemispher||Controls Language|
|Brain Stem||The oldest, most primitive part of the brain. Located at the base of the bran where your brain meets you neck. This area controls Vital Life Functions like: Breathing, Balance and Heart Beat.|
|Limbic System||Above the brain stem but deep within you brain is your ______ system, which contains the Amydala. It is responsable for expressions of strong emotions like Fear, Rage and Sexual Excitement.|
|Cerebral Cortex/Outer Brain Shell||The newest portion of the brain which is most developed in man verses lower animals.|
|Frontal Cortex||The part in the Front is call the Frontal Cortex. It is associated with the ability to plan, to reason and to inhibit inappropriate behaviors, It is the 1st part of the brain affected by alcohol.|
|Sleep Deprivation||When people are deprived of REM Sleep. 1-Night, they typically will experence a Rebound Effect the next night, thus showing an increase in REM and a decrease in Stage 4 sleep|
|Awake 80 Hrs.||11 to 16 hrs. of sleep is suffiecent to rejuvinate you .|
|Affect||Mood or Emotions|