Old Testament History and Literature Exam 2

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Patriarchs

Forefathers, ancestors

Abraham

The first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation

Melchizedek

King of Salem (later known as Jerusalem) and also priest of "God Most High"; He said a blessing over Abram and Abram gave him 10% of all he had.

El Elyon

Meaning God Most High

Sarah

Wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. She gave her servant to Abraham so that she could have children through here and doubted God's promise that she would have a son in her old age.

Hagar

Sarah's servant. She bore Abraham a son named Ishmael. Referred to as a concubine by Tullock.

El Shaddai

Meaning "God Almighty"

Circumcision

The cutting off of male foreskin in the Old Testament as a sign and seal of the covenant of Grace.

Theophany

The appearance of the divine to a human being, as when he "appeared" to Moses in a burning bush.

Sodom and Gomorrah

Cities that were destroyed by God in a rain of fire and brimstone, along with an earthquake. As the home of Abraham's nephew Lot for a time.

Issac

Son of Abraham and Sarah. The promise made to Abraham was extended to him about becoming the father of many nations.

Ishmael

Son of Abraham and Hagar. Also promised by God to be the father of many nations.

Akedah

The story of how God asked Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac; also known as the "binding" of Isaac

Jacob

The grandson of Abraham, son of Isaac and Rebekah, brother of Esau, and the traditional ancestor of Israelites. His name was changed to Israel, and his 12 sons became the 12 tribes of Israel.

Esau

The eldest son of Isaac who would have inherited the Covenant that God made with Abraham and that Abraham passed on to Isaac

Birthright

Esau gave his birthright away to Jacob for a bowl of bean soup in his starvation. Thus granting Jacob the privileges of the firstborn.

Laban

Father of Rachel and Leah. He cheated Jacob, who ended up working for Laban for 20 years. "shrewd man of the world"

Dinah

Only daughter of Jacob and Leah; Raped by Shechem: Simeon and Levi avenged her defilement by killing all the men after they were circumcised.

Joseph

First son of Jacob and Rebekah; had 10 older brothers (son's of Leah). God blessed him with the ability to interpret dreams and sent him ahead to preserve the land of Egypt from famine.

Tamar

Wife of Er. She is left a widow after her husband dies, but his brother also died after avoiding giving her a son. Later, disguised as a prostitute, Judah slept with her and gave her a son.

Judah

Son of Jacob, wronged Tamar by withholding his youngest son.

Potiphar

Egyptian captain of the guard that bought Joseph as a slave. He made Joseph head of his house.

YHWH

Personal Hebrew name for God

Suzerainty Treaty

A treaty made between unequal parties. Such as when God made treaties with men.

Parity Treaty

An ancient treaty made between two parties of equal social standing

Aaron

Brother of Moses; Moses' prophet while he was representing God while trying to free the Hebrews from Egyptian rule

Miracle

A marvellous event manifesting a supernatural act of God

Passover

Event when the Israelites were "passed over" by the angel of death as dictated by the tenth plague; a holiday celebrated by Jews as a day of deliverance. Unleavened bread.

Miriam

Moses sister and first female prophet. She was cursed with leprosy by God for seven days after criticizing Moses' marriage to a Cushite woman.

Jebel Musa

Most likely location of Mt. Sinai at the time of the Exodus.

Jethro

Moses's father-in-law that advised him to create different levels of judges.

Apodictic Law

Laws stated as absolutes, no contradictions

Casuistic Law

Stated a condition and told waht the penalty was if the condition existed (aka case law)

Covenant Law

Oldest Israelite code. Contained laws designed for a society in which agriculture was the major means of earning a living

Priestly Law

Concerned primarily with proper worship.

Ark of the Covenant

The sacred chest where the ancient Hebrews kept the two tablets containing the Ten Commandments

Mercy Seat

On the lid of the ark of the covenant; designed with Cherubim

Tabernacle

Tent that housed the ark of the covenant. Only priests were allowed

Feast of Weeks/Pentecost

Happens 50 days after Passover; it celebrates the giving of the law at Mt. Sinai

Feast of Booths/Tabernacles

Holiday commemorating the 40 years of wandering in the wilderness. Celebrated harvest of fruit

Day of Atonement

The only fast a day and in ancient times the high priest would sprinkle sacrificial blood on the ark of covenant. (aka Yom Kippur)

Kadesh-Barnea

Place where Moses struck a rock instead of speaking to it in frustration of the Israelite complaining

Balaam

Prophet sent by King Balak to curse the Israelites but Yahweh forbids him to do so; an angel blocks his donkey's path on the way and he ends up blessing Israel rather than cursing them

Holy War

War sanctioned by God, often led by God, and sometimes requiring the complete slaughter of the enemy

Cherem

Literally meaning "the ban". Violation of taking spoils for personal use. This was punishable by death.

Joshua

Leader of the Hebrews after the death of Moses. He led the people into the promise land and led the campaigns during the holy wars.

Rahab

Prostitute that offered Hebrew spies a hiding place in exchange for sparing the lives of her and her family members during the destruction of Jericho.

Jericho

The city that came a-tumbling down. Hebrews marched around it once every day for six days then on the seventh they marched 7 times and shouted.

Achan

Broke the rule of cherem; he, his family and all he owned were stoned to death as a result.

Baal

Canaanite god of storm and fertility. In myth he is killed by Mot, but his mate Asherah brings him back to life. Evidence of changing seasons.

Asherah

Canaanite goddess of fertility.

Ehud

Left handed judge that assassinated Elgon king of Moab.

Deborah

First female judge

Barak

Deborah's right hand man who tested her power because she was a woman.

Gideon

Man who tested God, but in the end won a great victory for the Hebrew nation by following God's commands. But he died in shame because of the ephod.

Abimelech

The "false king" who killed all but 1 of his brothers

Jephthah

Son of a prostitute who was kicked out by his family. Later he was sought as a leader and after returning from battle he sacrificed his daughter to God.

Samson

Judge with inhuman strength that made the Nararite vow

Nazirite Vow

Could no use grape products, could not cut his hair, and could not touch a corpse

Amphictyony

A religious confederacy united around a central sanctuary. (referring to when the Israelites rededicated to Yahweh)

El Olam

Meaning "everlasting God"

Canaan

"land of purple"

corporate personality

A person was not seen as an individual, but as part of a larger unit (family, tribe, or clan)

1290 BC

[Possible] Date of the Exodus.

Ten Commandments

No other god before Me, don't make for yourself a graven image, don't say the Lord's name in vain, remember Sabbath, honor father/mother, don't murder, don't commit adultery, don't steal, don't bear false witness, don't covet

10 Plagues

Nile turned to blood, frogs, lice, flies, livestock disease, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, death of firstborn

3 Views of Sacrifice

...

4 models of the conquest

...

El Roi

Name Hagar gives God; "God Who Sees"

Ephraim and Manasseh

Sons of Joseph

Delilah

Woman who discovered the secret to Samson's strength

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