Integumentary system & body membranes

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Three Epithelial Memebranes

Cutaneous Membrane, Serous Membranes, Mucous Membrane.

Cutaneous Membrane

Also know as SKIN: The primary organ of the integumentary system.

Integumentary System

The hair, nails, and the skin glands as an organ system.

Serous Membranes

Found only on surfaces within closed cavities.

Peritoneum

Refers to abdominal cavity

Pleurisy

Very painful pathological condition chacterized by inflammation of the serous membranes that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs.

Peritonitis

inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity.

Mucous Membranes

Epithelial membranes that line the body surfaces opening directly to the exterior. EX: Resporitory, digestive (MOUTH), urinary, and reproduvtive tracts.

Synovial Membranes

Lining the spaces between bones and joints that move are classified as connective tissue memebranes.
Also line the small, cushionlike sacs called BURSAE found between moving body parts.

Visceral

Covers internal organs

Parietal

Lines the internal organs

Structure of the skin

A sheet like organ that covers the body and acts as a barrier between the internal and external enviroment. The skin is composed of two main layers:

Epidermis

The outermost layer of the skin. It is a relatively thin sheet of stratified squamous epithelium.

Dermis

the deeper of the two layers. It is thicker than the epidermis and is made up largely of connective tissue.

Hypodermis

Fatty part of the skin. Also serves as a stored source of energy for the body and can be used as a food souce if required.

Stratum Germinativum

The cells of the inner most layer. This enables the skin to repair itself if it is injured.

Startum Corneum

The tough outer layer of the epidermis. Dead Cells.

Pigment Layer

The deepest cell layer of the epidermis, it is responsible for the production of a pigment called melanin.

Melanin

What gives the skin color.

Vitiligo

A condition charactized by patchy looking areas of light skin resulting from the aquired loss of epidermal melanocytes.

Albinism

Characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment in the skin and eyes.

Dermal-epidermal junction

The junction that exists between the thin epidermal layer of the skin above the dermal layer below. The area of contact between dermis and epidermis "glues" them together.

Blister

Formation also occurs if this junction is damaged or destroyed.

Dermal papillae

The upper region of the dermis is characterized by parallel rows of peglike projections.

Strawberry Hemangioma

A collection of dilated vessels that may intially apper as a bruise at birth, then grow rapidly during the first year in to a bright red nodule.

Hair Papilla

Cap-shaped cluster of cells that hair growth begins.
Visible part of a hair is called the shaft.

Alopecia

Hair loss of any kind. EX: Male pattern baldness.

Arrector Pili

Involuntary tiny smooth muscle that is attached to the base of a dermal papilla above and to the side of a hair follicle below. This causes goose bumps.

Lunula

The nail body nearest the root has a cresent shaped white area.

Nail bed

Layer of epithelium that lies under the nail.

Sebaceous Glands

Secrete oil for the hair and skin which is called SEBUM.

Sebum

The oil that is secreted through the Sebaceous glands for the hair and skin.

Acne

Results from the more than fivefold increase of sebum secretion between the ages of 10 and 19. This oversecretion of sebum results in blockage of sebaceous gland ducts with sebum, skin cells, and bacteria.

Tempurature regulation

Skin plays a key role in regulating the bodys temperature: by regulating sweat secretions and flow of blood close to the body surface.

First Degree Burns

A typical sunburn.

Second Degree Burns

Blisters severe pain, generalized swelling and fluid loss.

Rule of the Nines

Frequently used methods of determing the extent of a burn injury, determins body surface area. 9%

Impetigo

Highly contagious condition results from staphylococcal or streprococcal infection and occurs most often in small children.

Tinea

Fungal Infection, of the skin: Ringworm, athlete's foot jock itch.

Warts

Caused by the papollomavirus, a benign neoplasm of the skin.

Boils

Also called furnucles most often local staphylococcal infections of hair folliclse and are charactereized by large inflamed pustules.,

Scabies

Contagious skin conditon caused by the itch mite, transmitted skin to skin contact.

Decubitus

Pressure sores.

Scleroderma

An autoimmune disease that affects the blood vessels and connective tissues of the skin. Causes the skin to harden and thinken.

Psoriasis

Common and chronic skin disorder, characterized by silvery white, scalelike plaques that may remain fixed on the skin for rmonths.

Squarmous cell carcinoma

Slow growing malignat tumor of the epidermis, it the most common type of skin cancer.

Melanoma

Malignant melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer. Sometime developes from pigmented nevus (mole)

Kaposi Sarcoma

One of the rarer skin cancers. associated with immune deficiencies.

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