# UNIT 2: POPULATION PATTERNS and PROCESSES

## 49 terms · Lexi M. Period 5.

### Demography

The study of patterns and rates of population change, including birth and death rates, migration trends, and evolving population distribution patterns.

### Census

A period and official count of a country's population.

### Population density

The number of individuals per unit area

### Arithmetic population density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area.

### Physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land

### Population composition

The structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

### Age-sex pyramid

A graphic representation of a population showing the percentages of the total population by age and sex.

### Crude birth rate (CBR)

The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.

### Crude death rate (CDR)

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

### Infant mortality

The number of babies that die within the first year of life in a given population.

### Total fertility rate (TFR)

The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.

### Demographic transition (cycle)

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

### Doubling time

The time it takes to double a population.

### Exponential growth

Cumulative or compound growth (of a population) over a given time period.

### Linear growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

### Natural increase

Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate

### Population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

### Stationary population level (SPL)

The level at which a national population ceases to grow

### Absolute direction

the EXACT way or direction to get to something (north,south,east,west)

### Relative direction

Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down

...

### Relative distance

distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.

### Push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

### Pull factors

Things that make a person want to move to an area, it's attractions -i.e Florida; Beaches, Warm weather, Theme Parks, etc.

### Activity (action) space

The space within which daily activity occurs.

### Cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

movement among a definite set of places. Ex of cyclic movement.

### Seasonal movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.

### Migration

the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

### Emigration

migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)

### Forced Migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.

### Voluntary Migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

### Internal Migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

### External Migration

Movement from one country to another. It may be voluntary or involuntary.

### Interregional Migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

### Step Migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

### Counter Migration

the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated

### Intervening Opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

### Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### Refugee

a person who has to leave his or her country to find safety.

### Temporary Refugees

Refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement.

### Permanent Refugees

Refugees who have been substantially integrated into the host country or host region and who are thus seen as long-term visitors.

### International Refugees

Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation and who now find themselves encamped in a different country

### Intranational Refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.

### Immigration Laws

Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.

### Eugenic population policy

Government policy designed to favor one racial sector over others.

### Expansive population policy

Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth.

### Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

### Negative population growth

The actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases. When the death rate exceeds the birth rate.