Concepts of Chemical Dependency Chapter 5 & 6

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The Effects of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Abuse of and Addiction to Barbiturates and Barbiturate-Like Compounds

Alcohol Use Disorder

A.U. D.

What are the four characteristics of alcohol addiction?

Using Alcohol on a daily basis
Individual tries to limit the amount of alcohol use
Participates in binge drinking
Drinking more than what is socially acceptable

In the U. S. it is thought that ___% of all adults will consume alcohol at some point in their lives

90

It is thought that ___% of all adults are current alcohol users.

60

Factors that contribute to an individuals tolerance are_____and _____.

drinking history and genetic inheritance.

The acute syndrome that presents in such a manner that it maybe mistaken for conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, sub-dermal hematoma,or infection involving the Central Nervous System unless the attending physician is aware of the individuals drinking history.

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

How the body makes changes to continue to function.

Tolerence

When was Barbituric acid discovered?

1864

Who invented Barbituric acid?

Aldolph von Bayer

Primary users of Barbiturates are in what age group?

Older population

What is one of the controversial uses of Barbiturates?

Lethal injection

Side effects of Barbiturate use.

Nausea
Dizziness
Impaired judgement/reaction
Insomnia

Examples of commonly used Barbiturates

Amobarbital
Aprobarbital
Butabarbital

When injected, effects begin in seconds, and lasts for less than 30 minutes. Very lipid soluble. Useful in dental surgical procedures.

Ultra-short-acting barbiturates

Usually administered orally. Effects begin in 10 to 20 minutes and lasts for 3 to 4 hours. Elimination half-life maybe longer than duration of effect. Lipid solubility falls between that of ultra-short-acting and intermediate-duration barbiturates.

Short-acting barbiturates

Usually administered orally. Effects begin in approximately 1 hour. Effects of a single dose last for 6 to 8 hours. Elimination half-life may be longer than duration of effect. Moderately lipid soluble.

Intermediate-duration barbiturates

Usually administered orally. Effects of a single dose begin in about an hour and last for 6 to 12 hours. Elimination half-life may be longer than duration of effect. Lipid solubility less than that of Intermediate-duration barbiturates.

Long-acting barbiturates

Characteristics Mild level of intoxication

Sedation
Slurred Speech
Disorientation
Ataxia
Nystagmus

Characteristics Moderate level of intoxication

Coma
Hypo-ventilation
Depression of deep tendon reflexes

Characteristics Severe level of intoxication

Deep coma
Gag reflex is absent
Apnea
Hypo-tension
Shock
Hypothermia

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