Born in Connecticut. Educated at Yale. Lived 1758-1843. Called "Schoolmaster of the Republic." Wrote reading primers and texts for school use. He was most famous for his dictionary, first published in 1828, which standardized the English language in America.
American writer and printer, published a short biography of the 1st president and became the nations first best seller: Life of Washington in 1806. Weems presented him as a unifying figure for the political culture of the new nation, and that was the way he would be remembered.
chief justice; spoke for unanimous court; ruled that the judiciary act of 1789 was unconstitutional; stated courts powers came from the constitution not from congress; established judicial review
Lewis & Clark
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
The forcible enlistment of soldiers. This was a rude form of conscription that the British have employed for over four hundred years. At this time the London authorities claimed the right to impress only British subjects on their own soil, harbor, or merchant ships. However, many Americans were mistaken for Englishmen and between 1808 and 1811 alone some six thousand United States citizens were impressed by the "piratical man-stealers" of England. This was one of the major causes of the war of 1812.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
(1765-1825)A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largely viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence.
Author and diplomat Washington Irving became the first American author recognized by England. Irving published Knickerbockers History of New York in 1809 which had interesting caricatures of the Dutch. Washington Irving's The Sketch Book, published in 1819-1820, was an immediate success. This book made Irving world renown. The Sketch Book was influenced by both American and English themes, and therefore popular in the Old and New World.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
Denies the diety of Christ, the Trinity, many Bible doctrines, denied man's sin nature, and taught that human nature is esentially good. Believed human reason could solve all of man's problems. Arose in the early 1800s and by 1815 had taken root in many churches
A government order banning the trade in or movement of commercial goods; any restraint or hindrance; stoppage, ban, boycott; to forbid to enter or leave port; to forbid trade with.
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.(1812)
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
1819. Settled land dispute between Spain and United States as a result of tensions brought on by weakening Spanish power in teh New World. U.S. gained Florida in exchange for $5 million and renounced any claims on Texas and settled boundary between two countries to the Pacific Ocean.
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810) the Supreme Court struck down a state law as unconstitutional. In the Yazoo Land Fraud Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim. Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers. The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers. The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid. This was asserting federal power over state power.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
"Tariff of Abominations"
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
A devotion to the interests of a person's geographical region rather than the country as a whole. For example: Southerners were more concerned about the south rather than the entire United States.
1807, an American, successfully launched the Clermont, the first steam powered paddle ship, on the Hudson River. Steamboats soon appeared on rivers and along coasts on both sides of the Atlantic and in 1838 the Great Western was the first to cross the Atlantic took 15 days.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Panic of 1819
after a period of economic boom after the War of 1812, where the prices of farm goods and land increased rapidly, and the wildcat and state banks gave easy credit to settlers and speculators, the National Bank finally decided to tighten credit, call in loans, and foreclose on mortgages. In effect, there was a series of failures by state banks, and the result was a financial panic and depression.
This system developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the production process; the workers were almost all young single farm woman.
McCullough v. Maryland
1819 ruling by the Supreme Court stating that Maryland could not tax the local office of the Bank of the United States because it was the property of the National Government
Worcester v. Georgia
1832 Marshall determined that Cherokees were a sovereign nation under U.S. Treaty, and Georgia could not interfere, Andrew Jackson: "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it."
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political and economic and social equality
(1782-1817)Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
For seven years the Seminole Indians, joined by runaway black slaves, waged a bitter guerrilla war that took the lives of some fifteen hundred. Their spirit was broken in 1837, when the American field commander treacherously seized their leader, Osceola, under the flag of truce. The war dragged on for 5 more years, but the Seminole were defeated.
The Bank War
Controversy in the 1830s over the existence of the Bank of the United States, at that time the only national banking institution. The first Bank of the United States, chartered in 1791 over the objections of Thomas Jefferson, ceased in 1811 when Jeffersonian (Democratic) Republicans refused to pass a new federal charter. In 1816 the second Bank of the United States was created, with a 20-year federal charter. In 1829 and again in 1830 Pres. Andrew Jackson made clear his constitutional objections to and personal antagonism toward the bank. He believed it concentrated too much economic power in the hands of a small moneyed elite beyond the public's control. Its president, Nicholas Biddle, with the support of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, applied for a new charter in 1832, four years before the old charter was due to expire, thus ensuring that the bank would be an issue in the 1832 presidential election. Jackson vetoed the recharter bill and won the ensuing election, interpreting his victory as a mandate to destroy the bank. He forbade the deposit in the bank of government funds; Biddle retaliated by calling in loans, which precipitated a credit crisis. Denied renewal of its federal charter, the bank secured a Pennsylvania charter in 1836. Faulty investment decisions forced it to close in 1841.
Up until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but in 1824, this idea was overthrown., Andrew Jackson's term for selection process of candidates
In 1832, Jackson's followers staged a national political convention to renominate him for president. this was considered a great victory for democracy. Power would arise directly from the people through he convention.
"Exposition and Protest"
1828 (JQA) , John C. Calhoun wrote this in protest to the Tariff of 1828. In it, he said that a state should be able to nullify a federal law (The Tariff of 1828)
Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina made a speech in favor of cheap land in 1830. He used Calhoun's anti-tariff arguments to support his position and referred to the plausibility of nullification. Webster contended that the Union was indissoluble and sovereign over the individual states.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
At the Whig's first national nominating convention in 1840, the party chose William Henry Harrison as its presidential nominee because he was a military hero, and he did not have a political record that indicated how he felt about controversial issues. The Whigs realized that as a party representing largely upper-income and business voters who stood in opposition to Jackson's and Van Buren's egalitarian democracy, they needed a candidate who would appeal to a wide electorate. Forshadowing modern campaign tactics, the Whigs portrayed Harrison was a man of the people. Model log cabins and kegs of hard cider became Whig campaign symbols, along with this slogan which reminded voters of Harrison's heroics before and during the War of 1812.
The Aroostook War
an undeclared (and ultimately bloodless) confrontation in 1838-39 between the United States and Great Britain over the international boundary between British North America (Canada) and Maine
Democracy in America
classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority It explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.
Martin Van Buren
senator, vice president, and president of the United States; the Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, and he was voted out of office in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party.
War that was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States. Consisted of more than 150 battles, raids, and killings between Mormon settlers and Native American tribes in Utah.
political party formed in 1832 in opposition to Andrew Jackson; led by Henry Clay, it opposed executive usurpation (a strong president) and advocated rechartering the National Bank, distributing western lands, raising the tariff, and funding internal improvements. It broke apart over the slavery issue in the early 1850s.
"rotation in office;" Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations); states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"; the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
John Eaton, Secretary of War, was rumored to have had an affair with Peggy Timberlake, whom he later married, before her husband died in 1828. She was snubbed by the wives of Jackson's cabinet (led by Calhoun's wife). The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of similar rumors. This turned Jackson against Calhoun, drew Van Buren and Jackson closer together and dissolved the Cabinet. Calhoun resigned the vice presidency the next year and entered the Senate for South Carolina.
"Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
"Log Cabin" campaign
It was a Whig party presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison in 1840. It portrayed Harrison as a simple man sprung from the people when in reality he was rich. It won Harrison the election. Campaigning among the masses.
The Caroline Affair
Residents of eastern Canada launched a rebellion against British, seized an American steamship, the Caroline, to ship supplies across the Niagara River to them from New York. British authorities in Canada seized the Caroline and burned it, killing an American. The British refused to disavow the attack or provide compensation for it. Authorities in New York arrested a Canadian and charged him with the murder of the American.
1842 between the US and Britain, this treaty settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition