Concepts of Chemical Dependency Chapters 7 & 8

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Abuse of and Addiction to the Benzodiazepines and Similar Agents Abuse of and Addiction to Central Nervous System Stimulants

The most frequently prescribed psychotropic medication in the world.

Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines are used to do what?

Replacement for Barbiturates
Decrease anxiety
Hypnotic agent

When a person has more than one disorder it is called what ?

Co-occurring disorder

What is the ratio of usage to detox time with Benzodiazepines?

1 year of use requires 30 days (1 month) of detox time.

One side effects of Benzodiazepines is that

Between 4-9 report a moderate to severe level of sedation when they first start Benzodiazepines

When a patient that has taken Benzodiazepines as prescribed has difficulties with the adjustment process of ending use of them.

Discontinuation Syndrome or Withdrawal

Symptoms of long term usage following withdrawal are

Anorexia
Ataxia
Confusion
Delirium
Depression
Insomnia
Nausea
Nightmares
Seizures
Sweating

Normal dosage can cause what kind of side effects?

Irritability
hostility
rage

Benzodiazepines have been known to interfere with _________ function in both men and women.

Sexual

Name three CNS stimulants.

Ephedrine
Methylphenidate
Amphedamines

Primary use of Ephedrine is as a treatment for_______.

Asthma

Even at a ___________ dose ephedrine users are 200-300 % more likely to experience autonomic nervous system problems, upper gastronomy tract problems, and heart palpitations

Therapeutic

Methylphenidate is prescribed mainly for _______ and rarely for_______.

ADHD and Narcolepsy

What percentage of the world's production of Methlphenidate does the U. S. consume?

80%

Name the six stages of change.

Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Termination

Pat Can't Pay Any Money Today

Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Termination

Precontemplation Behaviors

Individual is still actively using chemicals and has not thoudght of stopping the use of recreational chemicals. Individual might not see use of chemicals as a problem.

Contemplation Behaviors

Individual is still actively using chemicals but has ambivalence about whether she or he wants to continue.

Preparation Behaviors

Individual has decided to quit in the immediate future.

Action Behaviors

Individual has started to try to avoid further chemical use

Maintenance Behaviors

Individual has made behavior change and continues to work to learn behaviors that will support recovery from chemical use.

Termination Behaviors

Individual has made cognitive changes that support abstinence.

Precontemplation Challenge

Teach client effects of drugs of abuse and risks associated with their use. Help client build self-esteem. Help client identify barriers to recovery.

Contemplation Challenge

Teach client about effects of drugs of abuse and risks associated with their use. Enhance motivation for change.

Preparation Challenge

Enhance motivation for change. Help individual make behavioral plans to support impending change.

Action Challenge

Identify relapse triggers. Help individual recognize symptoms of impending relapse.

Maintenance Challenge

Ensure stability of change. Help individual identify and deal with any personal issues that might be a threat to his or her recovery program.

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