Uppers passages include:
nose, oropharynx, larynx
Lowers passages include:
Gas exachange occurs in the ....?
Branching of Bronchial Tree:
trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
What is the purpose of nasopharyngeal defenses?
remove particles from the air; conact with surface lysosomes and immunoglobulins (IgA) protects against infection
What is the purpose of glottic and cough reflexes?
protect against aspiration into tracheobronchial tree
What is the purpose of the mucocilary blanket?
Removes secretions, microorganisms, and particles from the respiratory tract
What is purpose of the pulmonary macrophages?
Remove microorganisms and foreign particles from the lung
IgA deficiency state, hay fever, common cold, trauma to nose, and flu; These factors impair the effectiveness of what defense mechanism?
What factors impair the effectiveness of the glottic and cough reflexes?
loss of cough reflex due to stroke or neural lesion, neuromuscular disease, abdominal or chest surgery, presence of nasogastric tube.
What factors impair the mucociliary blanket?
smoking, viral diseases, chilling, inhalation of irritating gases, flu
Which factors impair the pulmonary macrophages.
Chilling, alcohol intoxication, smoking, anoxia
Pnemococi, staphylococcus are types of...?
A common mycobacterium is?
The rhinovirus grows best in what environment?
33-35C and in the upper respiratory tract
Influenza typically occurs in the URT unless what is impaired.
What are opportunistic infections?
What is the function of hemagglutinin?
This is used to attached to thte target cells which for influenza is the respiratory epithelial cells.
Which surface protein is involved in budding of the virus inside fo the host cell.
What is the importance of the segmented RNA of influenza.
To allow recombination and the development of new strands every ten years.
There are two types of single stranded influenzas that infect humans which one is the most common and causes the most severe disease.
What four steps are taken into consideration when classifying the influenza virus.
strain ( A or B), first isolation species, year of isolation, and surface antigens types
An antigenic _____ is a subtle change in the presence of the proteins on the surface of the influenza virus, and is still recognized by the immune system,
An antigenic _____ occurs when the new virus doesn't resemble the original organism enough to render an immune response.
Where does the influenza virus live and replicate?
In respiratory epithelium
The infuenza virus can be transmitted two ways what are they?
1. direct contact with respiratory secretions.
2. Aerosols (coughing, sneezing)
The period of time that can last between 1-4 days without systems is known as the _______ period.
Fever, chills, nasal discharge, malaise, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat are all gradually presented when a person is infected with _________ ________.
Survivors of viral pneumonia may develop what condition?
diffuse pulmonary fibrosis
When the influenza enter the lungs and alveoli it now becomes viral _____.
Some symptoms of viral pneumonia include:
rapid progression of fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis, hypoxemia, death in days.
The elderly, HIV positve, and those with cardiopulmonary disease are most like to develop what condition?
During influenza when the URT defenses are compromized individuals are more susceptible to _______ infections.
Immunization must be given ______ due to the recombinant ability of the influenza virus.
Experts of the organization ______ are responsible for predicting the antigenic composition of the influenza virus for the coming year.
First generation drugs are used to inhibit what function of the virus?
viral uncoating in host cell which involves loss of the protein capsid to release itself into the host cell
Amantidine and Rimantidine are examples of what type of drugs?
What are two examples of second generation drugs?
Secondary generation drugs are responsible for inbiting the viral enzyme _______ which is necassary for the budding of new viruses.
Complication from ______ are most likely to occur in young children, elderly, those with CHF, organ transplant patients, anyone taking immunosuppressant drugs,and those with HIV.
Phneumonia is characterized by the inflammationof the ______ and _____.
alveoli and bronchioles
_______ is the leading cause of death elderly and disabled.
The cluster-like arrangement of the alveolar gives what advantage?
An increase surface area for gas exchange.
What is the last line of defense in the lungs?
stationary alveolar macrophages
These cells produce the surfactants that decrease surface tension and allows for gas exchange.
Type II alveolar cells
Type I alveolar cells are responsible for?
Structural components that make up the wall of the aveoli sacs.
This type of pneumonia effects only an isolated lobe of the lungs.
____________ pneumonia effects the entire lung or even both lungs.
The ____ lung has two lobes and the _____ lung has three lobes.
Pneumonia is more likely to occur in patients with neurologic defects because of the impairment of _____ and _____ ______.
coughing and gaging reflexes
Community-acquired pneumonia is caused by organisms in the community found in ______ or ______ _____.
hospitals or nursing homes.
What is the most common bacterial pneumonia?
The bacteris Legionella causes which disease?
Hospital-acquired pneimonia occurs when.....?
the pneumonia was not present or incubating when the patient entered the hospital.
P. jiroveci, aspergillis(mold), and candida are all bacteria that easliy can infect which populations?
HIV, transplant patients, patients on immunosuppression, and those with autoimmune diseases.
Typical pneumonia is characterized by what factors?
usually bacterial in orgin and replicating in the alveoli.
The accumulation of debris, swelling, and dead cells occur due to what response to the bacteria.
the inflammaion response occuring in the membrane of the sacs.
Marked inflammation, exudation of fluids into alveoli, purulent sputum, severe fever, chills malaise are all symptoms of what type of pneumonia?
What evidence of typical pneumonia is seen on a chest X-ray?
lower lobes of lungs are apparently opage due to the gravity of the accumulation.
What are characteristics of atypical pneumonia?
usually caused by viruses or mycoplasma. Organisms are replicating in the spaces around the aveoli.
Why do the viruses move out of the alveoli in atypical pneumonia?
Because the viruses need cells to replicate and there aren't any host cells available in the alveoli.
Dry cough is a pertinent sign of which type of pnemonia?
"patchy" pneumonia is limited to _____ and _______.
alveolar and interstitium
This type of pneumonia has generally milder symptoms, no WBC infiltration, and no exudation or purulent sputum.
Why dont't you want to use antibiotics to treat a virus?
Because the patient would begin to build an unnessacary immunity to the drugs and prevent a response later on.
How did sppending time in the Himalayas and recieving plenty of fresh air and good nutrition help Herman Brehmer cure his TB in 1854?
He was recieving lots of sunlight and juice; things that carry antioxidants and also fuel the immune system to fight the infection.
_________ tuberculosis was first discovered using a staining technique.
What cause the increased incidence of TB in the time period from 1985-1992?
HIV population began to increase
Primary tuberculosis occurs following the _____ infection.
After inhaling the infection during primary TB the ______ responds after 2-3 weeks.
The massive inflammatory reaction occurs due to the organism infecting the ________.
The inflammatory lesions of the inflamed tissue calcify and develop into ________.
______ TB occurs when the individual is re-exposed to the bacteria or the dormant TB may re-emerge from its encapsulated state.
Progressive or disseminated TB is a characteristic of _______ TB.
A ghon's focus are gray-ehit inflammatory lesions that contains what?
TB bacilli, macrophages, and other immune cells
More common in Secondary TB, the ghons complex includes the _______ plus lymph node involvement.
If TB is maintained by the immune system its said to be ______?
If progression of the TB occurs the destruction of the lungs, airways, and lymphatics can be carried out through _______ _______.
What is Mililary TB?
TB lesions that disseminate through lungs into other organs
When the organism can be spread by coughing and other aspirations the organism has now infected the _______ and _______.
airways and sputum
What are five symptoms of secondary TB?
1. low grade fever
2. night sweats
3. anorexia (weight loss)
For the TB skin test the TB antigen is placed under the skin and the degree of ________ hypersensitivity reaction is measured.
Anergy is a limiting fact for what populations of patients?
HIV or immunocompromised patients
What is the nect step after an individual test positive for a TB skin test?
Can false positives occur? And if yes under what cirrcumstances?
Yes,if a person has been exposed to it but doesnt have the bacteria.
If the bacteria is in its early stages of infiltration a false _______ can occur.
Why can't the immunocompromised be vaccinated efficiently for TB?
It may not work because they may not beable to amount to an antigenic response to it.
What are the two most common drugs to treat TB?
BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) TB Vaccine is not recommended in U.S. because...?
its low efficacy and false positives after 3 months of administration.