Pharmacology Test 2 multiple choice

233 terms by mjswenson84

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Phenytoin

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits Na, high protein binding, gingival hyperplasia

Carbamazepine

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits Na, autometabolism, agranulocytosis, Liver function test required

Oxcarbazepine

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits Na, Ca; enhances K, Stevens-Johnson

Phenobarbital

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, modulates GABAa receptors, decreased glutamate

Gabapentin

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Decreases Ca, increases GABA, no drug interactions

Tiagabine

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Gaba uptake inhibitor, high protein binding, hepatic metabolism

Levetiracetam

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits delayed K, N-type Ca, negative mod of GABAa, Free of drug-drug interactions

Felbamate

Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits NMDA, enhances GABA, Aplastic anemia, Liver function test required

Ethosuximide

Absence Seizures, Inhibits T-type Ca

Valproic acid/ Sodium Valproate

Variety of seizure types, Inhibits Na, T-type Ca, GABA transaminase, Idiosyncratic hepatoxicity (liver function test required)

Lamotrigine

Variety of seizure types, Inhibits Na, glutamate release, Partial, Absence, Lennox-Gastaut, Can cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Topiramate

Variety of seizure types, Inhibits Na; enhances GABA, K; AMPA/KA antagonist, Can inhibit carbonic anhydrase, Can cause metabolic acidosis

Zonisamide

Variety of seizure types, Also for migraine, manic-depression, neuropathic pain, Inhibits Na, T-type Ca, weak carbonic anhydrase

iv Lorazepam

Status epilepticus

iv Diazepam

Status epilepticus

iv Fosphenytoin

Status epilepticus

Vigabatrin

Infantile spasms

Corticotropin

Infantile spasms

Prednisone

Infantile spasms

Trazodone

Antidepressants, Inhibit reuptake of 5-HT, block post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptors, causes priapism

Nefazodone

Antidepressants, Inhibit reuptake of 5-HT, block post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptors, inhibits P-450

Bupropion

Antidepressants, Inhibits DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake also smoking cessation, OCD; Seizures

Mirtazapine

Antidepressants, α2 antagonist (increased NE and 5-HT), H1 receptor antagonist, causes appetite stimulation

Fluoxetine

Antidepressants, SSRIs (can inhibit P-450s, anorgasmia) can cause akathisia

Sertraline

Antidepressants, SSRIs (can inhibit P-450s, anorgasmia), weakly blocks DA uptake, few drug-drug interactions

Venlafaxine

Antidepressants, SNRIs, can increase blood pressure

Duloxetine

Antidepressants, SNRIs

Amitriptyline

Antidepressants, TCAs, also neuropathic pain, migraines; Blocks 5-HT then NE. Also blocks D2

Nortriptyline

Antidepressants, TCAs; Secondary TCA

Imipramine

Antidepressants, TCAs, also pediatric nocturnal enuresis; Blocks 5-HT then NE

Desipramine

Antidepressants, TCAs, inhibits NE uptake; Secondary TCA

Tranylcypromine

Antidepressants, MAOI (nonselective)—Atypical depression

Phenelzine

Antidepressants, MAOI (nonselective)—Atypical depression

Isocarboxazid

Antidepressants, MAOI (nonselective)—Atypical depression

Selegiline

Antidepressants, MAOI type b

Lithium

Antidepressants, for Bipolar

Valproic acid

Antidepressants, for Bipolar

Carbamazepine

Antidepressants, for Bipolar

Lamotrigine

Antidepressants, for Bipolar

Terbutaline

Asthma, Bronchodilators, β-adrenergic agonists

Albuterol

Asthma, Bronchodilators, β-adrenergic agonists

Salmeterol

Asthma, Bronchodilators, β-adrenergic agonists

Ipratropium

Asthma, Bronchodilators, Muscarinic antagonists

Theophylline

Asthma, Bronchodilators, Methylxanthines

Aminophylline

Asthma, Bronchodilators, Methylxanthines

Beclomethasone

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids

Fluticasone

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids

Budesonide

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids

Prednisone

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids

Zileuton

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Leukotriene pathway modifiers

Zafirlukast

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Leukotriene pathway modifiers

Montelukast

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Leukotriene pathway modifiers

Cromolyn

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Release inhibitors

Nedocromil

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Release inhibitors

Omalizumab

Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, anti-IgE therapy

Phenobarbital

Sedative-Hypnotics, Barbiturates

Pentobarbital

Sedative-Hypnotics, Barbiturates

Thiopental

Sedative-Hypnotics, Barbiturates

Chlordiazepoxide

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), alcohol withdrawal

Diazepam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), anticonvulsant, alcohol withdrawal, anxiolytic

Flurazepam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), sleep aid

Lorazepam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), phase II metabolism, alcohol withdrawal, anxiolytic

Temazapam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), phase II metabolism, sleep aid

Alprazolam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), anxiolytic, short half life

Midazolam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), anterograde amnesia

Flunitrazepam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), Rohypnol

Clonazepam

Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), Anticonvulsant, Spasmolytic

Zaleplon

Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), bind to BZ1 subtype of benzodiazepine sites

Zolpidem

Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), bind to BZ1 subtype of benzodiazepine sites

Eszopiclone

Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), bind to BZ1 subtype of benzodiazepine sites

Flumazenil

Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), benzodiazepine site antagonist

Chloral Hydrate

Sedative-Hypnotics, Older sedative/Hypnotics

Meprobamate

Sedative-Hypnotics, Older sedative/Hypnotics

Melatonin

Sedative-Hypnotics, Melatonin receptor agonists, serotonin derivative synthesized and secrected by the pineal gland

Ramelteon

Sedative-Hypnotics, Melatonin receptor agonists, MT1 (sleepiness) and MT2 (circadian rhythm)

Buspirone

Sedative-Hypnotics, Serotonergic Agents, agonist at 5-HT1a

Diphenhydramine

Sedative-Hypnotics, Over the counter sleep aids, Antihistamines

Doxylamine

Sedative-Hypnotics, Over the counter sleep aids, Antihistamines

Baclofen

Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, GABAb receptor agonist

Tizanidine

Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, central α2 adrenergic receptor agonist

Dantrolene

Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, decreased release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum

Chlorpromazine

Typical Antipsychotics

Haloperidol

Typical Antipsychotics

Risperidone

Atypical antipsychotics, Elevation of prolacting, extrapyramidal side effects

Clozapine

Atypical antipsychotics, Agranulocytosis, improves cognitive function

Olanzapine

Atypical antipsychotics, Similar to cloxapine, binds 5-HT2a and D4, improves cognitive function

Quetiapine

Atypical antipsychotics, Binds 5-HT2a more than D2, antagonizes H1, α1, α2

Ziprasidone

Atypical antipsychotics, Binds 5-HT2a more than D2, antagonizes H1, α1, α3

Aripiprazole

Antipsychotics; Dopamine system stabilizer, Partial agonist at D2 and 5HT1a serotonin receptors, antagonist 5HT2a

Hydromorphone

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, more potent than morphine

Methadone

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, treatment for heroin addiction

Meperidine

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, less potent and shorter duration than morphine

Fentanyl

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, very potent, short duration

Oxycodone

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, weak like codeine, orally as analgesic for mild pain

Loperamide

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, highly potent meperidine analog, controls diarrhea, no CNS penetration

Naloxone

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, antagonizes all opiates

Naltrexone

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, longer acting antagonist

Buprenorphine

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, partial agonist at opiate receptors, antagonizes morphine and heroin

Dextromethorphan

Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, cough suppressant

L-dopa

Parkinson's treatments, direct precursor of dopamine

Carbiodopa

Parkinson's treatments, peripheral L-aromatic decarboxylase inhibitor

Simemet

Parkinson's treatments, 1 Carbidopa: 10 L-dopa

Selegiline

Parkinson's treatments, MOA B inhibitors, does not cause hypertensive crisis; Deprenyl

Rasagiline

Parkinson's treatments, MOA B inhibitors

Tolcapone

Parkinson's treatments, COMT Inhibitors (prevent L-dopa breakdown in peripheral tissues), may cause liver damage

Entacapone

Parkinson's treatments, COMT Inhibitors (prevent L-dopa breakdown in peripheral tissues)

Bromocriptine

Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)

Pergolide

Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)

Ropinirole

Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)

Pramipexole

Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)

Benztropine

Parkinson's treatments, Centrally acting antimuscarinic agents (block muscarinics within the striatum)

Trihexyphenidyl

Parkinson's treatments, Centrally acting antimuscarinic agents (block muscarinics within the striatum)

Amantadine

Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine releasing agent

Donepezil

Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Rivastigmine

Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Galantamine

Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Tacrine

Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Memantine

Alzheimer's treatment, NMDA receptor agonist

Methotrexate

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppressive agents

Gold preparations

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppresive agents; Depresses macrophage activity

Gold sodium thiomalate

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppresive agents; Depresses macrophage activity

Leflunomide

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppresive agents

Etanercept

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), TNF-alpha blockers

Infliximab

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) TNF-alpha blockers

Abatacept

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), others; Reduces production of TNF-alpha

Rituximab

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), others; Depletion of CD20 positive B cells

Anakinra

Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs); IL-1 receptor antagonist

Aspirin

NSAIDs

Ibuprofen

NSAIDs

Naproxen

NSAIDs

Salicylate

NSAIDs

Celecoxib

NSAIDs

Acetaminophen

Inflammation, Others

Glucocorticoids

Inflammation, Others

Indomethacin

Gout, Anti-inflammatory, NSAID

Colchicine

Gout, Anti-inflammatory, binds to tubulin in microtubules

Phenylbutazone

Gout, Anti-inflammatory

Allopurinol

Gout, Decreased urate production (inhibit xanthine oxidase)

Febuxostat

Gout, Decreased urate production (inhibit xanthine oxidase)

Probenecid

Gout, Uricosuric drugs

Sulfinpyrazone

Gout, Uricosuric drugs

Cyclosporine

Immunomodulators, Calcineurin inhibitors, inhibits activation and proliferation of T-cells through IL-2

Tacrolimus

Immunomodulators, Calcineurin inhibitors, binds FKBP-12 more than cyclophilin

Pimecrolimus

Immunomodulators, Calcineurin inhibitors, binds FKBP-12 and inhibits calcineurin

Sirolimus

Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response, does not inhibit calcineurin

Mycophenolate mofetil

Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response

Leflunomide

Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response, inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

Thalidomide

Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response

Daclizumab

Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, blocks IL-2, prevents T-cell activation, transplant rejection

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