APE Chapter 9 - The Late Middle Ages

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Feudalism

A political, economic, military, and social system that unified Western Europe during the Middle Ages.

Manorialism

Part of feudalism, this system was specifically the way a lord, who owned land, interacted with the serfs that worked his land (they couldn't leave) as well as with the peasants (who could leave).

Three-Field System

A system of growing crops where two fields would be planted on at a time, allowing the third field's soil to rest and be replenished with nutrients.

Vassal

A person who promises loyalty and military support to a king or lord in return for a track of land (fiefdom).

The Hanse

Also known as the Hanseatic League, this was an economic alliance of Northern European trading cities and merchant guilds.

Parliament

King John (Eng) was forced to sign the Magna Carta, which said that he would not be able to levy taxes except with consent of his royal council, which at first only included noblemen.

Gothic and Romanesque

Two major types of architecture in the Middle Ages. While both used stone buildings and arches, the earlier type of architecture had used bland exteriors to emphasize beautiful interior frescoes while the later type of architecture had ornate exteriors, high pointy towers, and used statues instead of paintings.

The Crusades

A series of military campaigns from 1095-1291, called by the Pope, with the goal of restoring Christian control over the Holy Land.

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)

A war between England and France. It began when the French city Flanders revolted and recognized Edward II (Eng) as their king. The war didn't end until much later when Joan of Arc (Fr) helped the French defeat the English.

Babylonian Captivity

The time that the Papacy was moved to Avignon, France from Rome.

Great Schism

After the Babylonian Captivity ended, France wanted to keep its influence over the pope so a group of French cardinals elected their own second pope. England and its allies supported the original pope.

John Wycliffe

A highly regarded English philosopher and spokesman against the pope's secular pretentions. However, he believed that personal merit, not rank, was true religious authority. His followers were called Lollards.

Black Death

A disease brought to Europe from Asia by traders that destroyed the malnourished and susceptible European population from 1348-1350.

Pandemic

An epidemic of an infectious disease that spreads over a large area, such as a continent.

Giovanni Boccaccio

An Italian during the Black Death who recorded the reactions in his book, the Decameron.

The Decameron

This book by Giovanni Boccaccio is of one hundred often bawdy tales told by three men and seven women in a safe country retreat away from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348.

Misogyny

The hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women. During the Middle Ages mythology was exemplified by the idea that women were more evil than men.

Ciompi

A great Italian uprising of the poor in 1378 that resulted in a four year reign of power by lower Florentine classes.

Statute of Laborers (1351)

A law passed by the English Parliament that limited wages to pre-plague levels and restricted the peasants' ability to leave their masters' land, sparking a revolt in 1381.

Flanders

A wealthy French fief that was subject to English political influence because it depended on imported English wool for its principle industry.

Calais

The port which the English seized after the victory at the Battle of Crecy in 1346 under King Edward III.

Joan of Arc

A peasant who went to French King Charles VII in 1429 and told him that God had told her to take Orleans back from the English. She gave the French an enraged nationalism and she took Orleans and won several other battles.

Longbow

A formidable weapon capable of firing six arrows per minute with enough force to pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at two hundred yards that gave the English archers an advantage over the French army.

Gabelle

A very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790.

Taille

The direct tax on the peasantry in France which was increased after the Black Death and to which opposition helped ignite the French peasant uprising known as the Jacquerie.

War of the Roses (1377-1485)

A series of civil wars for England's throne between two rival branches of the House of Plantagnet: Lancaster and York. It left England in no position to wage war in France, ending the Hundred Years' War.

Burgundy

A region in France whose dukes dominated French politics in the early 15th century.

Doges of Venice

The chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for over a thousand years. They were elected for life by the city state's aristocracy.

Papal States

Territories in historical Italy that were ruled directly by the pope.

Pope Boniface VIII

Pope of the Catholic Church from 1294-1303; tried but failed to make secular states subordinate to the Church.

Clericis laicos (1296)

A bull issued by Boniface VIII that forbade taxation of the clergy without papal approval.

Ausculta fili (1301)

"Listen, my son", a bull sent to Philip the Fair from Boniface VIII, stating that "God has set popes over kings and kingdoms"

Unam Sanctam (1302)

A bull issued by Boniface VIII that stated that temporal authority (the power of a nation) was subject to the spiritual power of the church.

Lay Investiture

The appointment of church officials by feudal lords and vassals.

Papal Bull

A papal document issued by a Pope of the Church, usually for formal or solemn occasions.

Avignon Papacy

Between 1309 and 1377, seven popes (all French), starting with Clement V and ending with Gregory XI, resided in Avignon in southeastern France due to the conflict between the Papacy and the French king Philip IV.

Scholasticism

A method of critical thought whose purpose was to reconcile Christian theology with classical philosophy.

William of Ockham

Recruited by Emperor Louis IV of France & supported secular authority; an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher

Dante Alighieri

A major Italian poet of the Middle Ages who wrote Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy

A 3-part, epic poem written by Dante Alighieri that described Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven

Geoffrey Chaucer

"Father of the English literature" and the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. He wrote The Canterbury Tales.

The Canterbury Tales

A collection of stories told as a part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral.

Estates General

A French representative council of townspeople, clergy, and nobles. Unlike Parliament, it was too divided to be an instrument for effective government.

Peace of Brétigny-Calais (1360)

Edward III (Eng) was no longer a vassal to the king of France.

Treaty of Troyes (1420)

Disinherited the legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed Henry V (Eng) the successor to Charles VI (Fr).

Plenitude of Power

plenitudo potestatis; the full power given to the Pope from God

Benefice

A gift of land in return for services rendered.

Conclave

The practice of gathering cardinals immediately upon the death of a pope in order to minimize political influence on the election of new popes.

Philip the Fair

King of France (1285-1314) who transformed France into an efficient and centralized monarchy. He was determined to end England's continental holdings, control Flanders, and establish France within the Holy Roman Empire.

Curia

The papal court

Annates and Indulgences

Two things Clement V used to raise money to fund the Avignon Papacy - one was the practice of collecting a church's first year's revenue and the other was the practice of selling pardons for unrepented sins.

Conciliar Theory

Sought to make a representative council within the church that could regulate the pope's actions, arguing that the entire church had more authority than the pope.

Council of Pisa (1409-1410)

Deposed Urban VI and Clement VII and elected Alexander V. However, neither Urban nor Clement stepped down and they ended up with three popes.

Council of Constance (1414-1417)

Declared Sacrosancta and elected Martin V after Urban VI, Clement VII, and Alexander V had all resigned or be deposed.

Sacrosancta

The Council of Constance's declaration of supremacy

Council of Basel (1431-1449)

The Hussites of Bohemia and the Council of Basel negotiated church doctrine.

Excreabilis (1460)

A bull issued by Pius II that condemned appeals to councils as "completely null and void".

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