AP Chem CH 1,2

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process that lies at the center of scientific inquiry
Steps:
1. Make observations (take measurements)
2. Draw hypothesis
3. Perform the experiment

scientific method

theory

set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon

natural law

generally observed behavior is formulated into this statement

law of conservation of mass

total mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical change

1. a number 2. a scale

quantitative measurement has 2 things

SI system

pretty universal system all over the world based on the metric system and units derived from it

commonly also called a cubic decimeter 1 L = 1 dm^3 = 1,000 cm^3 = 1,000 mL

liter

mass

measure of resistance of an object to a change in its state of motion

weight

force that gravity exerts on an object

significant figures

numbers that are the certain digits and the 1st uncertain digits

accuracy

the agreement of particular value with true value

precise

the degree of agreement among being reproducible

1. random error and 2. systematic error

2 types of errors

random error

aka indeterminate error; the measurement has equal probability of being high or low

systematic error

aka determinate error; the measurement occurs in the same direction each time; either always being high or always being low

K + 273 = C

equation to convert Kelvins to Celsius

C - 273 = K

equation to convert Celsius to Kelvins

density

a property of matter used as "identification tag" (mass/volume)

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

pure substance

substance that has constant composition

distillation

process depends on differences in volatility but important method for separating components of a mixture

filtration

another method of separation used when the mixture consists of a solid and liquid

compound

substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes

chemical change

substance becomes new or has different properties with this

elements

substances that can't be simpler broken down by any means

law of definite proportion

law discovered by Joseph Proust when he found out that a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass

law of multiple proportions

John Dalton discovered this law and it said that when 2 elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the 2nd element that combine with 1 gram of the 1st element can always be reduced to small whole numbers

law of conservation of mass

law discovered by Antoine Lavoisier that said that mass is neither created nor destroyed

binary compound

compound composed of 2 elements

oxyanion

anions that contain an atom of a given element a different number of oxygen atoms (such as ClO-)

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