← Cryptology Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All AES Advanced Encryption Standard: A symetric cipher that has been approved as a replacement for DES Algorithm Procedures based on mathematical formula; used to encrypt dada. Asymmetric Cryptographic Algorithm Encryption that uses two mathematically related keys. Bitlocker A Microsoft Windows Vista hardware enabled data encryption feature. Block Cipher A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at the same time. Cleartext Unencrypted data Blowfish A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits. Ciphertext Data that has been encrypted. Collision In cryptography, two different sets of data that produce the same hash. Cryptography The science of transforming information into an unintelligible form while it is being transmitted or stored so that unauthorized users can't access it. DES Data Encryption Standard: A symmetric block cipher that encrypts data in 64-bit blocks. Decryption The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext. Diffie-Hellman A cryptographic algorithm that allows two users to share a secret key securely over a public network. Digest The unique signature created by a hashing algorithm. Digital Signature An electronic verification of a sender. Elliptic Curve Cryptography An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys. EFS Encrypting File System: An encryption scheme for Windows operating systems. Encryption The process of changing plaintesxt into ciphertext. File System A method used by operating systems to store, retrieve, and organize files. GPG GNU Privacy Guard: Free, open-source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt e-mail messages. Hash The unique signature created by a hashing algorithm. Hashing The process for creating a unique signature for a set of data. Homoalphabetic Substitution Cipher A cipher that maps a single plaintext character to multiple ciphertext characters. IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm: A symmetric algorithm that dates back to the early 1990s and is used mainly in Europe. Key A mathematical value entered into the algorithm to produce a cipher. MD Message Digest: A common hash algorithm of several different versions. MD2 Message Digest 2: A hash algorithm that takes plaintext of any length and creates a hash that is 128 bits in length after the message is divided into 128 bit sections. MD4 Message Digest 4: A hash that was created in 1990 for computers that process 32 bits at a time. MD5 Message Digest 5: A revision of MD4 that is designed to address its weaknesses. Metadata Data that is used to describe the content or structure of the actual data. Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher A cipher that simply substitutes one letter or character for another. Nonrepudiation The process of proving that a user performed an action. OTP On-Time Pad: Compining a truly random key with plaintext. One-way Hash The process of creating a unique signature of a set of data. Pad In cryptography, a truly random key. Padding Additional data that is added to a hash to make it the correct number of bytes. Plaintext Data input into an encryption algorithm. PGP Pretty Good Privacy: A commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt e-mail messages. Private Key An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected. Private Key Cryptography Cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message. Public Key An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected. Public Key Cryptography Encryption that uses two mathematically related keys. RC2 A block cipher that processes blocks of 64 bits. RC4 A stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length. RC5 A block cipher that can accept different length keys & blocks. RC6 A cipher that has three key sizes (128,192, and 256 bit) and performs 20 rounds on each block. RC Rivest Cipher: A family of cipher algorithms designed by Ron Rivest. RSA An asymmetric algorithm published in 1977 and patented by MIT in 1983. SHA Secure Hash Algorithm: A Secure Hash Algorithm that creats hash values of longer lengths. SHA-1 The first version of Secure Hash Algorithm. SHA-2 A family of Secure Hash Algorithms that has variations, known as SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512. Steganography Hiding the existence of data within a text, audio, image, or video file. Stream Cipher An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with for another. Substitution Cipher A cipher that simply substitutes one letter or character for another. Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithm Encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message. Transposition Cipher A cipher that rearranges letters without changing them. 3DES Triple Data Encyption Standard: A symmetric cipher that was designed to replace DES. TPM Trusted Platform Module: a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services. Twofish A later derivation of the Blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong. Whirlpool A new cryptographic hash function that has received international recognition and adoption by standards organizations. Whole Disk Encryption Cryptography that can be applied to entire disks. Authentication Header (AH) An IPsec protocol that authenticates that packets received were sent from the source identified in the header of the packet. bridge trust model A trust model with one Certificate Authority (CA) that acts as a facilitator to interconnect all other CAs. Certificate Authority (CA) An entity that issues digital certificates for others. Certificate Policy (CP) A published set of rules that govern the operation of a PKI. Certificate Practice Statement (CPS) A technical document that describes in detail how the CA uses and manages certificates. Certificate Repository (CR) A publicly accessible directory that contains digital certificates. Certificate Revocation List (CRL) A repository that lists revoked digital certificates. digital certificates A technology used to associate a user's identity to a public key. direct trust A type of trust model in which a relationship exits between two individuals because one person knows the other person. distributed trust model A trust model that has multiple CAs that sign digital certificates. dual-sided certificate A digital certificate in which the functionality is split between two certificates. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) An IPsec protocol through which confidentiality is achieved. encryption certificate a dual-sided certificate used for the actual encryption of the message. Extended Validation SSL Certificates (EV SSLs) An enhanced server digital certificate that requires more extensive verification on the legitimacy of the business. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A protocol of the TCP/IP suite used for transferring files. hierarcical trust model A trust model that has a single hierarchy with one master CA. Internet Security Association & Key Management Protocol/Oakley (ISAKAMP/Oakley) An IPsec protocol that allows the receiver to obtain a key & authenticate the sender using digital certificates. HTTPS (Hypertext Transport Protocol over Secure Socket Layer) A secure version of HTTP sent over SSL/TLS.