Standard anerobic flora of the body. Non-pathogenic.
alpha-hemolytic. thick capsule. igA protease. quellung reaction to type the capsule. Vaccine available.
Streptolysin O makes this bacteria beta-hemolytic. Also possesses exotoxins, streptokinase, lipoteichoic acid and M-protein. It can lead to auto-immune dysfunction. Commonly associated with strep throat.
A group B capsule. Normal flora of the vagina. Hippurate hydrolysis positive.
Normal flora of the intestinal tract. Grows in bile esculin, but not NaCl. Generally not pathogenic, but associated with colon cancer.
Group D Nonenterococci
Grows in 6.5% NaCl. Low virulence, but can cause UTI, endocarditis or wound infections. Inherently antibiotic resistant.
Group D Enterococcus
Approximately 50% of all endocarditis cases are a result of this. Somewhat low virulence.
Causes 9 different pathologies, from food poisoning to endocarditis. Produces 10 toxins including: Enterotoxin present in food, TSST-1, exfoliatin- scalded skin, etc.
produces alpha toxin, catalase and coagulase.
can produce beta-lactamase in addition to teichoic acid and protein A.
Occasional cause of urinary tract infections in women.
Can cause infection of catheters, endocarditis or infection of other prosthetic materials. Transmission is common in hospital due to invasion of integument.
gram-stained diplococci which present with alpha-hemolysis. Also, IgA protease detected.
Produces exotoxin B, which rapidly destroys tissue in necrotizing fasciitis. Also makes lipoteichoic acid, which sticks to fibronectin in the oropharynx.
Has a polyglutamic acid capsule- primary cause of its virulence. Spore-forming. Vaccine available (to some).
Produces either edema factor, which increase cAMP or lethal factor, which is a protease that cleaves phosphokinase.
Food poisoning. Incubation about 2-16 hours. Possesses ADP-ribosylating toxin and superantigen. Associated with rice.
Gram+ bacillus, spore-forming, non-motile. Transmitted by dead animals or terrorists.
Produces a polypeptide exotoxin which binds to nerves, inhibiting release of glycine and GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitters.)
A polypeptide exotoxin which binds to nerves, inhibiting release of glycine and GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitters.)
Can cause food poisoning or gas gangrene.
Uses alpha toxin, a lecithinase, to destroy living tissue. The destroyed tissue creates an anaerobic bubble for more bacteria to form and grow without normal bloodflow. The bacteria spreads through this cycle.
Presents in hospitals as colitis. Only helpful tests are to perform genetic tests on fecal matter. Exotoxin A and B damage mucosa of colon and create a yellow pseudomembrane appearance. Extremely resistant to most antibiotics.
Polypeptide exotoxin inhibits release of acetylcholine.
Presents with beta-hemolysis and meningitis in newborns. Organism preferentially grows intracellularly.
listeriolysin O- creates beta-hemolysis.
Pathologically relevant to humans only. Works by A+B toxin which ADP-ribosylates EF-2. There is a vaccine.
Black colonies on tellurite media. (loffler's media)
Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome. IgA protease and endotoxin. Grows on chocolate agars. Ferments maltose. Vaccine available.
Ferments maltose. Vaccine available. IgA protease and endotoxin. Grows on chocolate agars.
Presents with headache, fever, stiff neck and petechial rash.
Pili mediated attachment to mucosum. Can cause PID in women. Commonly an STD, but can also infect oropharynx or conjunctiva.
Glucose fermented, but not maltose. Grows on Thayer-Martin medium with 5% CO2.
Four types which all cause dysentary. Human only pathogen. Produces a unique toxin which irreversibly inactives 60S subunit.
Non-lactose fermenting, Gram- bacilli. Identified with anti-O antibody agglutination tests.
Methylene blue stool test to find PMNs in stool. Positive test indicates these organisms.
Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter
"Rose spots". Intracellular infection. Fever due to bacteremia and endotoxin. Virulent capsule. Small H2S production.
Causes diarrhea 18-24 hours after ingestion. Invades mucosa of small and large intestine with endotoxin. Usually self-limiting and non-fatal. Commonly associated with undercooked eggs.
Septicemia caused by bacteria invading bloodstream- can cause prolonged symptoms like secondary osteomyelitis, pneumonia, pulmonary abcess, etc.
Similar to, but milder than, typhoid fever symptoms. High fever and bacteremia due to infection of mesentery.
Similar to Salmonella enteriditis, but not.
Gram- rods of enterobacteriaceae; ferment lactose slowly. Found in contaminated food like eggs.
Impressive ability to live inside macrophages. Invades macrophages through the Peyer's patches of the small intestines.
Capable of causing a wide range of infections. UTI, sepsis, neonatal meningitis, montezuma's revenge, dystenary, bloody diarrhea.
Pili for attachment to mucosal surfaces. Antiphagocytic capsule. Endotoxin. ADP-ribosylating heat-labile toxin which increases cAMP. Stx-1 toxin results in bloody diarrhea. Heat stabile toxin stimulates cGMP. 50% have B-lactamase.
Comma shaped gram- bacilli. Causes diarrhea. Epidemic disease.
Vibrio cholerae 01
Mild diarrhea. Occasional cause of diarrhea from eating shellfish.
Vibrio cholerae non-01
This toxin is an A+B, two subunit toxin. It uses ADP-ribosylation to increase intracellular cAMP production. Also possesses mucinase.
Wound and soft tissue infections, especially in shellfish handlers. Rapid and impressive necrotizing fasciitis.
Causes diarrhea. Rarely penetrates mucosa of enteric tract. Gram- "S"-shaped bacilli. Skirrows agar used because it does not readily culture in presence of other bacteria.
Gastric ulcers. Produces urease.
Common cause of UTI. Produce urease. Swarming effect on agar plates.
Two species similar to Proteus, but less common. Cause UTIs Carries antibiotic resistance.
Morganella and Providencia
Otitis media, epiglottitis. Palysaccharide capsule with capsular type B. IgA protease and endotoxin. Chocolate agar with factor X and V.
Appearance similar to herpes simplex virus. Not common in US. STD. Chocolate agar with factor X.
Pontiac fever. Intracellular growth, endotoxin, often transmitted in hot water heaters and stagnant warm water. Does not gram stain.
Legionnaire's disease- "atypical pneumonia" or multi-lobar pneumonia.
Infants and young children worldwide present with mild Upper-RT symptoms and coughing with inspiratory noise.
ADP-ribosylating A+B toxin and attachment to respiratory epithelium via fimbriae. Cultured on Bordet-Gengou agar. Vaccine available.
Causes thick sputum and bloody pneumonia or UTI. Large anti-phagocytic capsule and endotoxin. Gram- bacilli. Ferments lactose.