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Organelles

Cells contain smaller structures called _____ that carry out their metabolic functions.

Negative Feedback

Many physiological processes are controlled by self-correcting _____ loops.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

_____ was the first to produce a microscope capable of viewing a single cell.

Opposable

Our thumbs are said to be _____ because we can cross our palms with them to touch our fingertips.

Sarcoma

Which term can be described as cancer of the bone, other connective tissue, or muscle?

Anaphase

Which term can be described as the phase of mitosis in which each centromere divides in two and chromatids separate from each other?

Endocrine

Any gland that has no duct and secretes its products directly into the blood is called an _____ gland.

Allele

Any of the alternative forms that a particular gene can take.

Contact Inhibition

_____ is the phenomenon in which cells stop dividing when they are in close contact with neighboring cells, thus preventing excessive tissue growth.

Genotype

The _____ is the combination of genes that a person has for a specific trait.

Allele

The alternative forms taken by a single cell are called its _____.

Haploid

A _____ cell is one that has half as many chromosomes as those cells with a complete chromosome set.

Carcinogen

Any environmental agent that causes cancer is called a/an _____.

Pinocytosis

Process of taking a droplet of extracellular fluid that occurs in all cells of the human body is known as _____.

Homologous

Two identical-looking chromosomes, each of which was inherited from a different parent, are called _____ chromosomes.

Metastasis

The spread of cancer from its original site in the body to new locations is called _____.

Cytoskeleton

Supportive framework of a cell composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules is known as _____.

Lysosome

Organelle that contains enzymes for intracellular digestion and programmed cell death is known as _____.

Hypotonic

A solution that is more dilute than cytoplasm and would cause a cell to swell with water is known as _____.

Microvilli

Structures found on the surface of a cell that is specialized for absorption are known as _____.

Glycocalyx

Cell surface coating involved in immune recognition, sperm-egg binding, and organ transplant compatibility is known as _____.

Apoptosis

_____ is a process in which cells destroy non-functional organelles.

Peroxisome

Organelle that detoxifies free radicals is known as _____.

Golgi Complex

Organelle that synthesizes carbohydrates and conjugated glycoproteins is known as _____.

Ligand

Molecule that binds to a protein on the surface of the plasma membrane is known as _____.

Phospholipid

The plasma membrane is composed mainly of protein and _____ molecules.

Voltage-gated Channels

Channel proteins that can open or close their pores in response to changes in voltage across the plasma membrane are called _____.

Concentration Gradient

One difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport is that facilitated diffusion moves substances down their _____, while active transport can move them up.

Selectively Permeable

The plasma membrane is said to be _____ because it allows some substances to pass through but excludes others.

Filtration

_____ is a process of membrane transport that depends on the hydrostatic pressure exerted on a fluid.

Antioxidant

A chemical that neutralizes free radicals is known as _____.

Oxidation

A type of chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy is known as _____.

Microtubules

Protein cylinders called _____ form the core of a cilium or flagellum, and form part of the cytoskeleton.

Peptide Bond

Type of bond that links amino acids together is known as _____.

Exothermic

Chemical reactions that release heat is known as _____.

Anabolism

The synthesis reactions of metabolism is known as _____.

K

The chemical symbol for potassium is _____.

Anaerobic Fermentation

Process that produces lactic acid in humans is known as _____.

Glycogen

_____ is a polysaccharide stored in human skeletal muscle cells and liver.

Cation

A positively charged ion is known as a(n) _____.

Electrolytes

Compounds that ionize in water and produce a solution that will conduct electricity are called _____.

Enzyme

A protein that functions as a biological catalyst is called a/an _____.

Catalyst

Any chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not consumed by it is called a/an _____.

Cellulose

Dietary fiber consists largely of the indigestible polysaccharide _____.

Free Energy

The amount of energy in a chemical that can do useful work is called its _____.

Hydrolysis

The opposite of a dehydration synthesis is a/an _____ reaction.

Scientific Method

The careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions.

Molecule

A _____ is any chemical composed of two or more atoms bonded together, whether the atoms are of the same or different elements.

Tissue

The grade of structure between cells and organs.

Receptor

Any structure specialized to detect a stimulus.

Organ

Composed of two or more tissues, working together to perform a specific function.

Theory

The statement or set of statements that summarize our present understanding of a phenomenon.

Positive Feedback

_____ is a process in which a physiological change triggers further change in the same direction.

Gross Anatomy

The study of structures that can be observed without magnification is called _____.

Control Group

A _____ group of individuals is as much like the treatment group as possible in every way except for the treatment being tested.

Homeostasis

_____ is the body's tendency to maintain stable internal conditions.

Metabolism

All chemical change in the body is collectively called _____.

Extracellular

All the material found outside the cells is called _____ material.

Ground Substance

All connective tissues consist of cells, fibers, and _____.

Basement Membrane

A simple epithelium is one in which every cell reaches the _____.

Dendrites

The cell body of a neuron usually has one axon and numerous _____ extending from it.

Hypertrophy

The growth of a tissue due to enlargement of its cells, but not involving the proaction of new cells, is called _____.

Serous

Glands that produce thin, watery secretions are called _____ glands.

Chondrocytes

The cartilage cells.

Fibrosis

The formation of scar tissue.

Mesoderm

The primary germ layer that gives rise to muscle and connective tissue.

Necrosis

The abnormal death of a tissue.

Bone (Osseous Tissue)

The connective tissue containing calcified matrix.

Regeneration

The replacement of damaged tissue with the same kind of tissue.

Peritoneum

The serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.

Cardiac Muscle

The tissue with intercalated discs.

Adipocytes

Fat cells.

Follicle

Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a _____.

Sebum

The holocrine glands of the skin secrete _____.

Corneum

Dead keratinized cells form the stratum _____ of the skin.

Cyanosis

A deficiency of oxygen in the blood can give rise to a skin color called _____.

Hard Keratin

The fingernails are composed of the protein _____.

Central (Haversian) Canal

Blood vessels travel through channels callee _____, seen at the centers of the osteons.

Apocrine

Axillary sweat glands are in a class called _____ glands after a former, mistaken belief about their mode of secretion.

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