Explain the "3R" principle of Russell & Burch.
-Reduction: the reduction of the numbers of animals needed for a study.
-Replacement: replacing conscious living animals with alternative methods.
-Refinement: make the procedures to minimize pain & maximize the information gathered from each animal used.
What is the Animal Welfare Act?
Laws that govern the humane handling, care, treatment & transportation of animals by animal dealers, exhibitors & research facilities.
Which federal agency monitors the AWA?
Which species of animals are presently not covered by the AWA?
Genus Rattus rats & genus Mus mice
What is the PHS?
Public Health Service: the country's major source of funding for biomedical research.
Which animals are covered by the PHS "assurance" system?
What is the "bible" that is used by the PHS for evaluating animal care?
"The Guide for the Care & Use of Laboratory Animals"
Define & briefly explain IACUC.
Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee is the committee that reviews & approves all research proposals involving animals
Define & briefly explain NIH.
National Institutes of Health pays grants for all biomedical research institutes
Define & briefly explain AAALAC.
Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care promotes high standards based off the "Guide for the Care & Use of Laboratory Animals"
Define & briefly explain GLP Regulations.
Good Laboratory Practice regulations provide the framework for performing scientifically valid studies & generating reliable safety data
Define & briefly explain FDA.
Food & Drug Administration approves regulatory products & requires that all research funded or reviewed by the FDA be conducted in accordance with the specific published policies.
Define & briefly explain EPA.
Environmental Protection Agency administers laws that protect human health & the environment.
Define & briefly explain PI.
Principal Investigator is the individual who designs & leads a research project.
Define & briefly explain OLAW.
Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare requires that an annual report be submitted to them from any institution receiving funding from the NIH.
Define & briefly explain REAC.
Regulatory Enforcement & Animal Care enforces penalties for violations of the AWA.
Define & briefly explain AALAS.
American Association of Laboratory Animal Science develops standards of education & performance for LATs, LATGs & ALATs & for developing & administering the certification examination for each classification.
Define & briefly explain ILAR.
Institute for Laboratory Animal Research created the "Guide for the Care & Use of Laboratory Animals"
What is a research protocol?
A detailed description of the procedures to be used in the research project
List the steps that a research scientist must follow when designing an experiment using live animals.
1. identify and clearly define the question or problem to be studied.
2. choose the research animal that is best suited for the experiment.
3. The chief research scientist (PI=principal investigator) must consider the 3R principles.
4. Develop a research plan or protocol
List 7 criteria that are necessary for selecting an appropriate animal model for a research project.
-The animal should accurately mimic the desired function or disease.
-The animal should be available to many investigators.
-The animal should be easily handled.
-The animal should survive long enough for studies to be completed.
-The animal should fit into available animal housing facilities.
-The animal should be of sufficient size to provide multiple samples.
-The animal should produce many offspring for each generation.
What is the animal model that has been used to study leprosy in humans?
2.2 pounds = ____ kilogram
1 ounce = ____ milliliters
1 inch = _____ centimeters
A meter is approximately _____ feet.
A liter is approximately _____ quart.
A milliliter is approximately ____ drops.
A 10 kilogram dog weighs ____ pounds.
Room temperature is about _____°F or _____°C.
72°F or 22°C
Refrigerator temperature is about _____°F or _____°C.
36°F or 4°C
Convert a cagewash temperature of 180°F to Celsius scale.
Briefly describe 5 requirements for a program of adequate veterinary care as required by the Animal Welfare Act & the "Guide for the Care & Use of Laboratory Animals".
1. a vet with the training or experience in the care and management of the animal species in the program.
2. Appropriate facilities, personnel, and equipment to comply with the AWA.
3. daily observation of the animals to assess their health and well being.
4. Guidance by the vet to personnel in the animal care and use techniques.
5. Adequate pre- and post- procedural animal care
What is the normal rectal temperature range of healthy cats & dogs?
100.5°F - 102.5°F
What is the normal heart rate of an average-sized dog?
What is the normal heart rate of a cat?
What is the normal respiratory rate of an average-sized dog?
What is the normal respiratory rate of a cat?
Describe the proper procedure for observing research animals.
1. Observe at a distance as to not disturb the animals.
2. Observe up close
3. Look directly at them
List 13 common signs of illness or pain in laboratory animals.
-Changes in appetite (increase or decrease)
-Changes in drinking habits (increase or decrease)
-Changes in attitude or behavior
-Ocular or nasal discharges
-Coughing or sneezing
-Vomiting or diarrhea
-Abnormal breathing patterns
-Weakness or lameness
-Loss of body weight
-Chattering/shivering/teeth-grinding (especially rodents)
-Teeth-grinding & sweating (ruminants & horses)
Describe the appearance of a healthy cat.
-Alert & curious.
-Respond to people by meowing, purring, rubbing against their enclosures & reaching a front leg out of enclosure
Describe the appearance of a sick cat.
Sit or lie quietly in the back of enclosure
-Not responsive to presence of people
-Anorexia, shivering, trembling & excessive sleeping
Describe the appearance of an aggressive cat.
displays piloerection, dilated pupils, tail lashing, hissing or growling & upright frontal stance
Describe the appearance of a healthy dog.
-Respond to people by barking, jumping up & down, tail-wagging
Describe the appearance of a sick dog.
-Isolate themselves in the back of enclosure
-Refuse to eat or drink
-Tremble or curl up
-Unresponsive to caregiver
Describe the appearance of a frightened dog (potential fear biter).
-Can be hard to "read"
-May be submissive at first but may quickly bite if comfort zone invaded.
Describe the appearance of an aggressive dog.
-Directly facing you
-Maintains eye contact
Describe how to approach an unfamiliar dog.
-Move slowly & deliberately.
-Speak in a calm, friendly voice.
-Avoid eye contact.
-Stand sideways or crouch down to eye level.
-Extend hand palm down below nose level to allow dog to sniff hand
Describe how to approach an aggressive dog.
Describe how to approach a fear-biting dog.
Describe how to approach an aggressive cat.
Describe the procedure for applying a gauze muzzle to a dog.
-Cut a length of non-stretchable gauze long enough to be wrapped around the muzzle twice. Usually 2-3 feet.
-Make large loop in center of gauze about 3 times the diameter of the dog's muzzle.
-Place loop around muzzle & pull tight.
-Cross ends of gauze under the jaw.
-Then the ends of the gauze are brought behind the ears & tied in a quick release bow.
Describe the correct method for lifting & carrying a cat.
-The left hand & arm of the handler are used to cradle the cat's body, control the hindquarters & press the cat's body into the body of the restrainer.
-The right hand can be used to scruff the cat's loose skin over the neck or just rest on the neck to reassure the cat.
Describe Dr. Norsworthy's technique for getting a cat out of a cat carrier.
Place catch net at the carrier's opening. Tip the carrier over the net & allow the cat to fall out into the net.
Describe Dr. Norsworthy's 8 techniques for restraining fractious cats.
1-hold by nape of neck & legs
2- bunny burrito
5- E-Z nabber
7- Snappy Snare
listening to the internal sounds of the body
Define the point of maximum intensity of the heartbeat.
the place where the heart beat is heard the best
Define cardiac sounds.
The sounds audible through a stethoscope which include:
-S1 or "lubb": louder, longer, lower pitched associated with closure of AV valves
-S2 or "dub": shorter, softer, higher-pitched sound associated with closure of semilunar valves
Define cardiac rhythm.
-Assesses if the heartbeats are evenly spaced.
-Classified as regular, irregular or respiratory sinus arrhythmia.
Define heart murmur.
Sounds of turbulent blood flow heard between normal heart sounds.
Where is the best location on a dog or cat to palpate the pulse?
femoral artery on the inner thigh
Describe the method to determine the heart rate of a dog.
-Place animal in standing restraint
-Hold stethoscope firmly against chest
-Listen & count the S1 heart sound for 1 minute.
Describe the method to determine the respiratory rate of a dog.
Count the number of breaths taken over 1 minute
Describe the method to perform lung auscultation of a dog.
Listen to the thorax, sinuses, larynx & trachea for several respiratory cycles
Describe how to obtain & read the rectal temperature of a dog using a mercury-type thermometer.
-Gently shake thermometer to settle the mercury.
-Place lube on thermometer end & insert into animal.
-Leave thermometer in rectum for 3 minutes.
-Remove & lightly wipe off with paper towel.
-Hold horizontally & look for the mercury.
-Read what number the mercury is settled at & record.
Describe the technique for applying eye drops & eye ointment to a dog & cat.
-Pull the upper & lower eyelids open slightly.
-Squeeze the eye drops into the inner corner of the eye taking care not to touch the dropper to the eye surface.
-Continue to hold the head back for a moment or 2 while the drops disperse over the whole eye.
Describe the technique for cleaning the external ear canals of a dog & cat.
-Gently pull the ear flap straight up & hold it with 1 hand
-The ear wash colution is squeezed liberally but gently from its container into the opening of the vertical ear canal
-Massage the base of the ear until you hear a "squishing" sound to distribute the ear wash solution throughout the ear canal
-Use cotton balls to remove discharge & debris from the inner side of the ear flap.
What is the best method for restraining a friendly docile cat?
Start with the most minimal restraint & work up if needed
What does BAR stand for?
Bright Alert Responsive
What does CRT stand for?
Capillary Refill Time
What CRT value is considered normal?
less than 2 seconds
What does ADR stand for?
"Ain't Doin' Right"
What is the primary purpose for obtaining the medical history from a pet's owner?
How should the medical history be obtained from a pet's owner?
Describe/explain a tablet.
Describe/explain a capsule.
Describe/explain a solution.
Describe/explain a suspension.
What are the "Six rights" for the administration of medications to animals?
Describe & give examples of an enteral route of medication administration.
Describe & give examples of an parenteral route of medication administration.
Describe & give examples of an topical route of medication administration.
Describe the correct procedure for filling a syringe & for removing air bubbles.
Which of the following needles are largest in diameter? -18 gauge; -21 gauge; -25 gauge; -27 gauge
Calculate the dosage of Atropine dose at 1ml/20lbs for a 40lbs dog.
Calculate the dosage of Acepromazine (10mg/ml) dose at 0.1mg/lbs for a 40lbs dog.
What is the difference between a Luer-lock & Leur-slip syringe?
What is the Assurance Statement?
What is the Annual Report?
What are the 2 primary functions of the IACUC?
Define a research facility.
List the methods for properly identifying a research animal.
-Assistant Laboratory Animal Technologists
1. no HS diploma/GED but with 2+yrs experience
2. HS diploma/GED with 1+yr experience
3. Any college degree of 2yrs+ with 0.5+yr experience
-Laboratory Animal Technicians
1. HS diploma/GED with 3+yrs experience
2. Any 2yr associates degree with 2.5+yrs experience
3. Any 4yr bachelors degree or higher with 2+yrs experience
4. ALAT certification plus HS diploma/GED/college degree after receiving ALAT with 1+yr experience
-Laboratory Animal Technologists
1. HS diploma/GED with 5+experience
2.Any 2yr associates degree with 4.5+yrs experience
3. Any 4yr bachelors degree or higher with 4+yrs experience
4. LAT certification plus HS diploma/GED/college degree after receiving LAT with 1+yr experience
What is the "Guide"?
How does a good RVT assess hydration of an animal patient?
-Life the skin over the animal's shoulders & watch how fast it returns to its normal position when released.
-Examine gums for texture & moisture.
Describe the techniques for administering a tablet to a dog.
Describe the techniques for administering a tablet to a cat.
Describe the sequenced steps for placing a cat in a cat bag.
Describe the sequenced steps for removing a cat from a cat bag.
Where is the PMI of the heartbeat of a dog or cat located?
Describe how to stop a dog from panting while auscultating the heart or lungs.
Describe how to stop a cat from purring while auscultating the heart or lungs.
What are the heart sounds?
What is heart rhythm?
How is heart rhythm classified?
Define R when discussing heart rate.
Define RSA when discussing heart rate.
What is a heart murmur?
How are heart murmurs classified?
Define pulse character.
Define & describe the 2 abnormal lung sounds.
-Crackles: discontinuous "velcro-like" sounds that mimic the noise of a fire (due to fluid in airways)
-Wheeze: continuous "musical" sound that is squeaky & high-pitched (due to inflammatory conditions)
How is mucouc membrane color evaluated?
by lifting the animal's upper lip & observing the color & texture of the gums
Define & describe CRT.
-CRT is used to assess peripheral blood flow by pressing on the animal's guns with a finger & then releasing the pressure. Then observe how long (in seconds) the area takes to refill with blood (go from pale color to normal color)
Describe the location of the 5 superficial lymph nodes of a dog & cat.
-Submandibular: ventral aspect of the neck near the angle of the jaw cranial to the salivary gland
-Prescapular: in connective tissue just cranial & dorsal to the shoulder joint
-Axillary: in subcutaneous space on the lateral aspect of the ventral thorax under the arm
-Inguinal:in most caudal part of the ventral abdomen just medial to the thighs
-Popliteal:in fat pad just caudal to the stifle joint (knee)
The government agency that oversees the use of animals in an educational or research institution is the ______.
"The Guide for the Care & Use of Laboratory Animals" is published by the _______.
Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR)
The institutional group charged with evaluation of animal use & inspection of facilities is ______.
The group that provides voluntary accreditation of biomedical research facilities is _______.
Research directed toward specific objectives, such as development of new drugs, is referred to as ______.
The use of procedures that cause the least amount of stress, pain, anxiety & disturbance of normal life to the animal is an example of _______.
The use of fish or plants in basic research is an example of _______.
Veterinarians who have reached the highest degree of proficiency in laboratory animal medicine are board certified by _______.
American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM)
Name the minimum membership of an IACUC.
1 veterinarian with training & experience in laboratory animal medicine & at least 1 person who has no affiliation with the research facility
Name the 2 most active animal liberation groups in the US.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) & the Animal Liberation Front