Alliance system was the treaties between countries across Europe based on tactical advantages as well as cultural similarities. These countries basically backed each other in the tense era of time and were originally created to maintain peace across Europe but the alliance system ended up causing the wide scale factor of the war.
An alliance of European nations consisting of Germany, Austria Hungary, and Ottoman Empire who originally agreed to be peaceful based on common cultural similarities and tactical interests.
The Triple Entente (from French entente [ɑ̃tɑ̃t] "good will") was the name given to the alliance among Great Britain, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. The alliance of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Portugal, Japan, the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Spain, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. (Italy had concluded an additional secret agreement with France, effectively nullifying their alliance with Germany.)
The area that Austria Hungary colonized in Serbia which Serbians believed belonged to them and when Austria Hungary took it, it caused tensions to spark in Serbia along with antiAustria Hungary propaganda and led to the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The Archduke of Austria Hungary at the time who was giving a speech when a Serbian assassin in the extreme nationalist group "the black hand" killed him. It was considered the match on the powder keg that led to the bloody beginning to the war.
The unconditional backing from Germany to Austria Hungary that allowed them to cash it for however much money they needed to attack Serbia.
Austro Hungarian Ultimatum
The ultimatum from Austria Hungary demanding an end to anti Austria Hungary propaganda to end and also to fire all of the generals and people who were considered hostile to Austria Hungary. It was not a serious threat and Serbia did not comply.
The German plan at the start of WWI to attack France through Belgium with a majority of their forces attacking immediately and they knew that Russia would be slow to mobilize so that by the time they took France they could focus all of their forces and military attention on the large Russian army.
German Empire, the Austro Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. Fought against the allied powers and based off the triple axis in World War 1. The triple axis had Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy but Italy did not help the war because they believed it was a defensive group and Germany went on the offensive. Eventually Italy joined the Allied powers.
Australia Belgium Canada France Greece India Italy Japan Montenegro Nepal New Zealand Portugal Romania Russia Serbia South Africa United Kingdom United States all made up the allied powers under the five great powers of UK, USA, Japan, Italy, and France. Although it was based on the triple entities of Russia, France, and Britain, Russia left the war early.
Twenty One Demands
post WWI treaty made by Japan and sent to China bonding them as allies but also providing Japan with many benefits in the nation of China as their sphere of influence already occupied most of China.
War of Attrition
Massive death tolls in the war in which the main way to beat the enemy was last out the longest while your enemy dies out slowly. Both sides were starving in a stalemate as they hopelessly hoped for the other side to starve to death and allow them to progress
Bloody warfare fought in trenches during World War 1 in which peopled died of diseases and being gunned down by machine guns and blown up by grenades and starvation.
The cost is not only millions of lives and billions of dollars but also we sacrifice progress. The world moves backwards as its inhabitants fight amongst themselves and millions of people's lives are sacrificed. People's sense of morality and codes of conduct are thrown out as animalistic belligerence takes over them as they bloodthirstily seek to kill each other. When those great men and those hard earned resources could be spent on moving the country forward in technology to accomplish tasks and go farther than ever before but rather that the entire sense of civilization is lost to the total war. The total war corrupts the mind through propaganda and the visuals that no man, whether German, British, Austrian, French, Japanese, or any other heritage should have to witness.
Bayonets Chiefly used as a psychological weapon Flamethrowers How 'sheets of flame' terrorised the British in 1915 Grenades Mills Bombs and Jam Pots: both forms of grenades Machine Guns How the German Army saw its potential before 1914 Pistols The officer's weapon Poison Gas First used by the French and popularized by the Germans Rifles Still the infantry's greatest asset Tanks The design and use of tanks during wartime Trench Mortars An ancient weapon given fresh life in the trenches. Bolt action rifles as well as magazine loaded rifles were developed and aircrafts were beginning to be made which led to anti aircrafts and eventually armored tanks to break the trenches. Though the planes and tanks were never fully developed.
the civilian sector of a nation at war when its armed forces are in combat abroad. During world war 1refers to life in Britain during the war itself. The Home Front saw a massive change in the role of women, rationing, the bombing of parts of Britain by the Germans (the first time civilians were targeted in war), the role of propaganda was profound and got ever civilian to get into the war by sending food to soldiers and rationing food and children and women getting in the work force to support the war.
Rationing was introduced into Britain at the tale end of World War One in February 1918. Rationing was introduced in response to an effective U boat campaign and during World War One, the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) was used to ensure that food shortages never occurred.One of the primary aims of DORA, when it was first introduced, was to prevent food shortages. At the start of the war, food shortages were self imposed as the German U boat campaign had yet to start. After the initial panic buying, people settled down into a routine and food was not a problem until the end of 1916. Britain continued to import food during the war. The main exporters to Britain were America and Canada. This meant that merchant ships had to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Up to 1916, these merchant ships could travel in relative safety. However, in 1917, the Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare and merchant ships were sunk with great frequency. This had a drastic impact on Britain's food supply and with great losses in the Atlantic, food had to be rationed so that no one starved in Britain. In April 1916, Britain only had six weeks of wheat left and bread was a staple part of most diets.
In World War One, the lengths to which governments would go to in an effort to blacken the enemy's name reached a new level. To ensure that everybody thought in the way the government wanted, all forms of information were controlled. Newspapers were expected to print what the government wanted the reader to read. In fact, though this would appear to be a form of censorship, the newspapers of Britain, effectively controlled by the media barons of the time, were happy to play ball. These were designed to develop and strengthen the current of hatred that was already engendered in Britain. The same thing was done in Germany - untrue headlines were tolerated and even encouraged by the German authorities. Some headlines were: "French doctors infect German wells with plague germs" "German prisoners blinded by Allied captors"
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany utilized a tactic in the war of blockading Britain and preventing food and various arms from being imported into the nation with the hopes of causing the country to starve out. Germany feared that because America was one of the greatest exporters to the war at the time that they would take offense and join the war effort. Germany invented the U boat and sunk a great many neutral ships and eventually sunk the British liner Lusitania which killed hundreds including 128 Americans dead and caused us to enter the war a few years later.
United States Entry Into The War
In April of 1917, America entered the war Submarine Warfare and the Lusitania There were unauthorized German submarines along the US East coast. Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in the spring of 1917 provided the final straw for US politicians, and America declared war. The first and foremost answer would be the sinking of the Lusitania, an British cruise/transport ship, bound for Britain from New York. The German U boat ring sought to sink all supply ships headed for Britain in order to starve the island. It sank the Lusitania as part of its efforts. 1195 people died, including 128 Americans. The Lusitania's sinking was the biggest influence on the American decision to enter the war. German submarine warfare (the Lusitania is included in this) sunk many ships over several years. Also, The U.S. had huge economic investments with the British and French. If they were to lose, then they would not be able to pay the U.S. debt back (amounting to about two billion dollars while Germany only borrowed a mere 27 million). If Allies could not pay back all the loans made to them by the American bankers, the US's economy could collapse. France and England were financing their war with US loans. In addition, they were buying massive amounts of arms from the US on credit. The US wanted to make sure that it got paid back. Germany also purchased arms, but in a much more limited fashion. Propaganda from both sides influenced the American decision. Woodrow Wilson did not want to go to war but when Teddy Roosevelt decided to run for another term, Wilson felt threatened and announced that there would be a preparedness program and possibly that the country would go to war. By entering the war, the US got to flex its muscles on the world stage and establish itself as a world power. Wilson wanted to make the world safe for democracy ("Wilson's War Address to Congress"). It was partly for idealistic reasons (propaganda was not seen as an evil until after the Great War). The occupation of Belgium and the sinking of the Lusitania changed a lot people's minds in the US about Germany. There was more to it than just the submarine warfare and the sinking of the Lusitania although those were the formal and legalistic reasons for declaring war. I think that over time a moral sense had developed that Britain and France were fighting the good fight for freedom against a genuine evil. If that sense had not existed I think the US would have let the Lusitania pass. As it was, it was nearly two years after she was sunk that we finally did declare war. Other points influenced entrance to the war, but the Zimmerman Telegram (sometimes called the "Zimmerman note" or "Zimmerman telegraph") finally pushed the US to war. The Zimmerman Telegram was sent from the German foreign secretary to the German Ambassador to Mexico. It stated the following: Germany proposes an alliance with Mexico on the following basis: If the US goes to war, Mexico must fight on the home front in an financially supported alliance with Germany; If Mexico agrees to fight, they will reconquer New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. The telegraph was intercepted by British Intelligence.
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The revolution is important because it occurred during WWI and caused Russia to bail out early and they weren't considered one of the victors despite having some of the most casualties.
1. There should be no secret alliances between countries
2. Freedom of the seas in peace and war
3. The reduction of trade barriers among nations
4. The general reduction of armaments
5. The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers
6. The evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nations
7. The restoration of Belgian territories in Germany
8. The evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace Lorraine
9. The readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationality
10. Independence for various national groups in Austria Hungary
11. The restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for Serbia
12. Protection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the Dardanelles
13. Independence for Poland, including access to the sea
14. A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike."
an agreement that ended the fighting in the First World War. It was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on 11 November 1918, and marked a victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany, although not technically a surrender. The Germans were responding to the policies proposed by American President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points. The actual terms, largely written by French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German troops to behind their own borders, the preservation of infrastructure, the exchange of prisoners, a promise of reparations, the disposition of German warships and submarines, and conditions for prolonging or terminating the armistice.The exuberance with which people greeted the armistice quickly succumbed to feelings of exhaustion, relief, sorrow, and a sense of absurdity.
Paris Peace Conference
in 1919 the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 29 countries. They met, discussed and came up with a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") that reshaped the map of Europe and the world, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. At the center of the proceedings were the leaders of the three "Great Powers": President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, and Prime Ministers David Lloyd George of Great Britain and Georges Clemenceau of France, with Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy being the next most powerful figure to create the "Big Four". In recent time, however, historians have reconsidered Italy's status at the conference and have considered Great Brtiain, France and the United States as the "Big Three." Germany and newly communist Russia were not invited to attend, but numerous other nations did send delegations, each with a different agenda. Kings, prime ministers and foreign ministers with their crowds of advisers rubbed shoulders with journalists and lobbyists for a hundred causes, ranging from independence for the countries of the South Caucasus to women's rights.For six months Paris was effectively the center of a world government, as the peacemakers wound up bankrupt empires and created new countries. The most important results included a punitive peace treaty that declared Germany guilty, weakened its military, and required it to pay all the costs of the war to the winners. This was known as the war guilt clause that was included in the final Treaty of Versailles. The Austro Hungarian Empire had ceased to exist as its disparate peoples created new states. The Conference also created the League of Nations.
Treaty Of Versailles
one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on October 21, 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war (along with Austria and Hungary, to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. The total cost is roughly equivalent to US 442 billion and The final payments ended up being made on October 4, 2010, the 20th anniversary of German reunification, and some 92 years after the end of the war for which they were exacted. The Treaty was undermined by subsequent events starting as early as 1932 and was widely flouted by the mid1930s.The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was compromise that left none contented: Germany was not pacified or conciliated, nor permanently weakened. This would prove to be a factor leading to later conflicts, notably and directly World War II.
"War Guilt" Clause
The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
payments and transfers of property and equipment that Germany was forced to make under the Treaty of Versailles (1919) following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the so-called 'war guilt' clause) declared Germany and its allies responsible for all 'loss and damage' suffered by the Allies during the war and provided the basis for reparations.Allied Reparations Commission and was set at US$64 billion, a sum that many economists at the time deemed to be excessive. The yearly amount paid was reduced in 1924 and in 1929 the total sum to be paid was reduced by over 50%. Payments ceased when Adolf Hitler's National Socialist German Workers' Party took power in 1933, with about one-eighth of the initial reparations paid.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Serb nationalists in 1914 which is the most obvious and pertinent case of self determination causing WW1. The Russian and Austro Hungarian empires were teetering on the brink because self determination was disaffecting millions in their large multi national empires. This would seem reason enough to go to war in an attempt to garner the support of the multi nationals in their respective countries
a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League. These were of the nature of both a treaty and constitution which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the right of petition and adjudication by the International Court. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, entered into on 28 June 1919. With the dissolution of the League of Nations after World War II, it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference that the remaining Mandates should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, subject to future discussions and formal agreements. Most of the remaining mandates of the League of Nations (with the exception of South West Africa) thus eventually became United Nations Trust Territories.
League Of Nations
after world war one this was the grandfather of the United Nations and attempted to join the European nations together after World War 1 and unite all the nations in an attempt to reduce bitterness. It didn't work, however, because they had no intention of joining with their bitter enemies including Germany.