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Communication

The process of acting upon information is the definition of

Making sense of the world

In the textbook, the primary distinction between the definition of communication and human communication involves

The message should achieve its intended effect

Dr. Johnson posts an announcement on her course web page that she is administering an exam on Thursday. On Thursday, she is surprised to find that over half of her students did not prepare for the exam or did not study the correct material. This misunderstanding illustrates what aspect of communication competence?

Other-oriented communication

To avoid potential misunderstandings, Dave prepares for a presentation to a group of business people from Japan by researching Japanese culture. Dave's preparation demonstrates which of the following?

The message achieves the intended affect

According to the textbook, which of the following is a criterion for determining communication competence?

Unethical

Andrew intentionally withholds information about his car being in a wreck when communicating with a potential buyer. He makes the sale. Andrew's communication is?

Interpretation

Another word for decoding is?

Receiver

Ejike listens to his instructor's lecture. He makes sense out of the lecture by translating it in his mind. Ejike would represent what part of the communication model?

Noise

Prior to class, Ralitza received a phone message alerting her to call home immediately. As a result of receiving this message, Ralitza is unable to focus on the class discussion. Which component of the communication process does this describe?

The speaker's encoding and the listener's decoding are interfering with communication

Imagine that you are listening to a speech about AIDS and HIV. One of the speaker's main points describes ways to respond to the devastating news that you or someone in your family is HIV negative. You are confused by this, because you know that HIV negative means that someone isn't infected with the virus that leads to AIDS. What is happening in this situation?

Communication takes place when messages are sent and received

The model of communication referred to as "communication as action" may be summarized with the phrase

Communication as interaction

The terms feedback and context are introduced in which of the communication models?

Physical context

When people communicate, their thoughts, their past relationship, and their communication goals are examples of

Context

On the day Janet was scheduled to give her speech, her class was relocated into the auditorium. Janet couldn't quite overcome the feeling of isolation she felt as she spoke to her twenty classmates in a room that could seat 500. Which of the following elements is most responsible for Janet's reaction?

Feedback

Maddy is speaking to a group about his experiences in Iraq. As he finishes his presentation, the audience breaks into applause. This applause represents the "blank" element of communication.

Communication as transaction

Jenny is speaking to Madina about her ideas for a speech. While Jenny is speaking, Madina simultaneously shakes her head and has a puzzled look on her face. Jenny notices this response and stops and explains her ideas in another way. This example is most closely related to which model of communication?

Irreversible

Gilberto makes a negative comment about Kirsten's new haircut. He quickly recants saying, "I'm sorry, Kirsten. You know I didn't mean it." Unfortunately, Kirsten still feels hurt. This example demonstrates that communication is

Inescapable

The fact that we communicate with others nonverbally even when we may not intend to do so demonstrates that communication is

Complicated

Dean Barnlund suggested that when we communicate with one other person, there are at least six other "people" involved. This statement suggests that communication is

Content

The aspect of communication that focuses on WHAT is said, including new information, ideas, and suggested actions, is referred to as

Relationship dimension

The aspect of communication that focuses on HOW something is communicated, and refers to emotions, attitudes, and power, is describing the

The people involved and the culture in which people are communicating

All communication involves rules that define appropriate behavior. What factors influence these rules?

Implicit Rule

Chinh knows that when he visits his friend, Rob, he must always call ahead. Rob has never told Chinh to do this. This example illustrates an

Mentally reviewing what you have to do that day

Which of the following is an example of intrapersonal communication?

She is aware of her own communication

Sondra is conscious of her tendency to be soft-spoken and withdrawn in communication situations. Based on this example, what characteristics of a competent communicator does Sondra have?

They are the primary way we communicate feelings and attitudes

Our unspoken messages are significant because

Smiling at a friend

Which of the following is an example of nonverbal communication?

Effective listeners are other-oriented

Which of the following statements is accurate concerning listening?

Appropriately adapting your messages to others

Kara's friend states that she did not understand what Kara meant by her previous statement. Kara restates her message by giving an example that is personally relevant to her friend. Kara's behavior best illustrates which of the principles of communication?

Interpersonal communication involves mutual influence

Which of the following is an attribute of interpersonal communication?

Objective Self-awareness

Merielle is conscious of the fact that she is mentally rehearsing what she will tell her professor after class. this example illustrates which dimension of self-awareness.

Symbolic self-awareness

Jenny sees herself as a caring person. She communicates this perception of herself to a career counselor, therefore, the counselor recommends that she enter the field of nursing. Jenny's interaction with the counselor demonstrates what dimension of Jenny's self-awareness?

Objective self-awareness

What dimension of self-awareness is unique to humans and only few primates?

Self-image...

Maria does not feel confident with her academic abilities in Calculus class; however, she feels at ease with her abilities in her drawing class. This example illustrates which of the following?

Self-concept

Danielle consistently describes herself as a confident, outgoing woman. Her description coincides with which of the following terms?

Attitude

Brian expresses his dislike for Chinese food. Brian's dislike demonstrates which component of self-concept?

Belief

Jaclyn thinks life exist on other planets. This example illustrates which component of self-concept.

Value

Athena thinks that killing animals for food is morally wrong. Athena's convictions would be which of the following?

Material

Jason spends hours every day working out at the gym. He also takes great care in keep his sports car well maintained and spotless. According to James' theory of the self, Jason is taking care of his

You have different selves in relation to different people

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the social self?

Spiritual Self

Madeline contemplates how the universe was created and her place in it. Madeline is exploring which component of self?

Communication with others

Aisha noticed at work that Vincent and Michelle kept asking her advice on office procedures. Soon, she began to see herself as competent and knowledgeable. Which of the following statements best describes the means by which Vincent and Michelle influenced Aisha's self-concept?

Association with groups

Jose was raised in a Cuban-American community. Although he had many college friends from other co-cultures, he proudly maintained his Cuban roots by sprinkling his speech with Spanish phrases. In addition, he enjoyed sharing examples of cultural norms from his family and neighborhood in his communication class. These examples show which kind of influence on Jose's self-concept?

Avowed Identity...

When Maury is asked to describe herself, her first response is that she is an overachiever. This describes her?

Assumed role

As Ellen was nearing graduation, she thought back over her college career. Although she had wanted to be more involved in extra curricular activities, she had focused more on her studies and tended to describe herself first as a student. What aspect of the formation of self concept does this describe?

Self-reflexiveness

Megan spends a lot of time thinking about her goals for the future. She learned from her last job that she would prefer to work outdoors. She learned from being in the Student Council in high school that she would prefer to work alone than with many people. This situation describes Megan using which of the following processes?

Self-esteem

Priscilla feels that she is unattractive and unlovable following a break-up with her boyfriend. Prior to this incident, Priscilla had a healthy view of her worth. Priscilla experienced a decrease in which of the following?

Images in the media

According to research, one powerful source for social comparison that may contribute to self esteem loss in girls is

Social Comparison

The statement, "I'm not intelligent because my roommate makes better grades than I do," illustrates which of the following?

Self-expectations

Andrew had plans to be married by the age of 25; however, he turned 30 and was still unmarried. He concluded that he was incapable of maintaining a healthy relationship. Andrew's self-esteem was impated by which of the following?

Social Comparison

Timothy was not doing well in his algebra class. In considering how well he could do in class, he began to ask other students about their algebra grades. This is an example of?

Positive self-talk

Christa experienced extreme anxiety about the thought of giving a presentation to her classmates. On the day of the presentation, she repeated in her mind statements such as, "You are well-prepared," and "You have valuable information to share with your audience." What technique was Christa using to boost her self-esteem?

Losing your baggage

Larry grew up in a family where his mother and father were constantly fighting and insulting each other. Their divorce was especially messy and mean. The poor quality of their relationship caused Larry to avoid commitment in a loving relationship for many years. Larry finally decides that he can no longer allow his feelings about love and marriage to be colored by his parents' failures. Which technique for improving improving self-esteem did Larry use?

Visualization

Aaron was asked to give a speech to the incoming freshmen about the advantages of serving in student government. He had never given a speech before and was very nervous. A speech professor suggested that in addition to practicing, he could picture himself delivering the speech successfully, and receiving favorable feedback from his audience. Which method did the professor recommend to help Aaron manage his communication apprehension?

Reframing

Lakesha received a lower grade than she expected on her first history paper. At first she was upset, then she realized that the paper was only 10% of her total grade for that class. Which method did she use in enhancing her self-esteem?

They have developed an honest relationship

Paul and Patty are able to talk to one another candidly about one another's faults and strengths. Their self-esteem is improved because of which of the following factors?

Surround yourself with positive people

If you want to develop a healthy self-esteem, it is often helpful to do which of the following?

Self Esteem

The assessment of your worth or value as reflected in your perceptions of such things as your skills, abilities, appearance and talents is?

The arousal of our senses

Perception involves

Interpreting and attributing meaning

Barry is driving Suzie home from a party, Barry notices that Suzie has her arms crossed and she is looking out the window of the car and making no attempt to communicate with him. Based on Suzie's nonverbal behavior, Barry infers that she is upset with him. Barry's inference about Suzie's behavior illustrates which stage of the perceptual process?

Symbol

A word, sound, gesture, or visual signal that represents a thought, concept, or object is a

Meaning

Is a person's interpretation of a symbol

Thought is rooted in and controlled by language

The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis suggests which of the following?

Bypassing

Judonna and Candice were shopping at the mall. Judonna needed to go to the other end of the mall to get something. She said to Candice, "Meet me at 2:00 in front of Sears. Candice thought the "in front" meant outside in front of the parking lot entrance. Judonna thought that 'in front" meant in front of the entrance on the inside of the mall. Judonna and Candice spent two hours waiting for each other. What language problem is reflected in this situation?

Denotative; connotative

(blank) meaning conveys the content of what a word means, and the meaning contains the feelings behind the word.

Carol and Marcia have different connotations for the word "home"

When Carol and Marcia talked about going home for spring break, Carol thought of home-cooked meals, free laundry, and time to spend with old friends. Marcia thought only of the bickering and fussing between her parents. Which of the following statements describes this situation?

Sailing

Which of the following words is the most concrete?

Education

Which of the following words is the most abstract?

More difficult it is for other people to agree with your meaning

The more abstract a word, the

Words are culture-bound

Bill was visiting his friend Carol's parent in Chicago. They offered him some tea; he was very thirsty, so he said he would love some. He was very surprised when they brought him a cup of hot tea. In Arkansas where he was from, the word "tea" always meant iced tea. If you want a cup of hot tea, you asked for "hot tea." Which of the following characteristics of language best describes this situation?

Meanings are context-bound

Sarah confides in Elizabeth saying, "Mr. Smith is inflexible when it comes to certain issues. I like a boss who can stand his ground and be firm in enforcing company policy. Elizabeth reports what Sarah said to Mr. Smith saying, "Elizabeth said that you were inflexible." M. Smith is offended by this comment. This example best illustrates which of the following?

The linguists received their training at Oxford.

Select the phrase below that uses the least biased language:

Gunny Sacking

Pam and Terry were discussing their current relationship. Pam digressed from the current situation and began to talk about what Terry had done in the past to hurt her feelings. This behavior is referred to as?

Polarization

Chris and Ryan are having a huge argument. Chris said to Ryan, "Either you love me or you Don't!" Which of the following barriers to effective communication does this statement represent?

Allness

When words reflect unqualified, often untrue generalizations that deny individual differences among people, they become the language barrier of

All of the above

Bias in language can be directed against

Heterosexist Bias

Using the terms "husband and wife" rather than "partner" demonstrates

Maintains sex based perceptions

According to the textbook, the problem with using "man" as a generic reference to all people, is it

When referring to both genders, use both pronouns "she and he" rather than only "he"

According to the textbook, which of the following is an acceptable way to use pronouns in writing and speaking?`

Sexist language

Using the term "chairman" for both men and women who serve as the presiding oficer at a meeting would be an example of

Heterosexist

Using language that assumes that the world is heterosexual and that same-sex attractions do not apply is called

Heterosexist language

Jack announces at a fraternity meeting that there will be a dance next weekend, and everyone is invited to bring their girlfriend. This is an example of?

Homophobic Language

Fred tells inappropriate jokes that make fun of people who are gay or lesbian. What type of language is Fred using?

Concrete

If what a word refers to can be experienced with our senses, it is described as

Syntax

Is the pattern and arrangement of words in a language.

Power to create and label relationships

The term "friends with benefits" reflects which attribute of language?

Allness

Fergis is angry about the results of her English exam. She tells her roommate. "The professor gypped me out of points on the essay question." Which type of bias is reflected in this statement>

Using words as shorthand that no one can understand but you

Bafflegab is?

U.S. Citizens

Which of the following would be less likely to be considered a co-culture in the United States?

Uses general terms that stand for all persons or things with a given category

Generic language is language that?

Message

According to the textbook, a definition of interpersonal communication that defines it as any face-to-face interaction between two people is omitting the notion of

Mutual influence

Marsha and Karen have been friends since grade school. They both deeply value one another's opinions, and they both play an important role in one another's life. This example best illustrates what aspect of interpersonal communication?

Circumstance

Mattie and Nancy first met each other on the job. Since they saw each other everyday and worked together, they became friends. This situation best describes a relationship of?

There is a lack of emphasis on physical attraction

Kirk had developed an online relationship with Kara. According to our text, how might this relationship differ from a face to face relationship?

Similar in dispositions and preferences

According to the textbook, relationships that are most likely to last are established between people who are?

People can be physically attracted to someone that they don't find sexually attractive.

Which of the following statements is true concerning physical and sexual attraction?

Proximity

Sandra tells Rhonda, "I find it interesting that all my boyfriends have been someone I met at work or someone who lived next door to me. It makes breakups very messy. I wish I could expand my dating pool." The fact that Sandra dates people she meets at work or next door neighbors can be explained by which of the following aspects of interpersonal attraction?

Control

Maria is frustrated in her relationship with Andre because he always decides where they are going to eat, what movie they will watch, and whose car they will take, when they go out on a date. This example illustrates that Andre has high (blank) needs.

Affection

Millie always wants to receive a hug from everyone, but she also likes to give people hugs and give encouragement and compliments. What interpersonal need does this illustrate?

Include others

Ned is always having dinner parties at his home. He invites everyone he knows from work and church to his home. Ned probably has a high need to?

You and your roommate are discussing a movie you just watched.

According to the definition given in the textbook, which of the following situations would be classified as interpersonal communication?

Short term initial attraction

Grace had just met John and she sensed that there was real potential for developing a relationship with him. This best describes?

Inverted developmental sequence

Tyler and Anissa met online. Their online discussions quickly began to cover very personal topics and they engaged in a high level of self disclosure. This is described as a/an?

Matching hypothesis

The tendency to seek out individuals who represent the same level of physical attractiveness as ourselves is explained as

When the lives of two people overlap in some way

When do relationships of circumstance occur?

Long-term maintenance attraction

Tasha and Marcus have been happily married for ten years. Tasha admires the way Marcus tackles a task, and his commitment to see it through. Marcus admires the way Tasha is able to see the humor in any situation, and her ability to make other people feel at ease. Which of the following terms best describes their feelings?

We are attracted to people who are opposite from ourselves on certain qualities and needs

The idea of complementarity is that?

Inclusion, control, and affection

Will Schutz identified three interpersonal neeeds that motivate us to form and maintain relationships with others. Those needs are?

"Thank you"

Which of the following statements would be the best response to a compliment about a presentation that you just gave?

Passive

A communication strategy of reducing our uncertainty by observing situations is describing a/an (blank) strategy.

Immediacy

Nonverbal and verbal cues that indicate liking are referred to as?

The point you made in the meeting was right on target, Janet."

Which of the following statements best reflects verbal immediacy?

How we attempt to get information about other people in order to understand them better

Which of the following statements best describes the focus of uncertainty reduction theory?

Passive

Tim had been watching Pat all semester in class, although they had never really talked. At first he thought that Pat was about as interesting as a piece of toast, but as the semester progressed he could tell from Pat's comments that Pat had a very dry, biting sense of humor. He began to think that Pat might be an interesting person to be friends with. What information reduction strategy is Tim using?

Self disclosure is highest in the developmental stages of a relationship

All of the following are true statements about self disclosure EXCEPT

Active

Darin saw his cousin, Malika, talking to a girl he had been interested in. Later, he asked Malika if the girl was involved in a relationship with anyone. What type of strategy was Darin using to gather information about the girl?

Interactive

The first night in the residence hall, Karl invited his new roommate to go to the union to shoot some pool and eat a pizza. What strategy was Karl using to gather information about his roommate?

Conversational narcissism

Karla's friend, Jessica, always had to have the last word. If Karla complained about a difficult test, Jessica would say, "That's nothing, you should see the tests Dr. Brown gives." If Karla is excited about a trip she is going to take, Jessica would say, "Oh, I've been there lots of times." Jessica could be described as having?

Show interest and concern by asking great questions

One method the text suggests to avoid being a conversational bore is to?

Differs from person to person for each relationship, and changes during the stages of the relationship

The Johari window is a model that demonstrates that self disclosure?

Adolescence

According to the textbook, at which stage in life do relationships with our peers become the most important social influence in our lives.

1 to 2

Research has found that most adults tend to have on average (blank) friends.

Both A and D are true. Are encouraged to develop and express opinions about the world w/o negative consequences and they tend to perceive themselves as skilled communicators.

Children who grow up in a pluralistic family environment (blank).

They establish flexible rules that can be changed

According to Satir, which of the following is a characteristic of a healthy family?

Interpersonal communication skills

Which of the following is the most highly valued when considering hiring someone for a job?

80

Researcher Herbert Mintzberg found that chief executive officers spend almost (blank) percent of their day communicating orally with others.

Observing her surroundings and how people interact on the job

Lara has just started a new job and is feeling somewhat anxious. She can reduce her uncertainty by which passive method?

Pre-interaction awareness stage

Samir notices Anna in his public speaking class and asks a mutual friend about her. This example would characterize which stage in relational escalation?

Exploration

Dan and Donna begin self-disclosing infomation about their dreams for the future, values, and religious beliefs, but they still spend a limited amount of time with one another. They are moving into which stage of relational escalation?

Initiation

Pablo and Nakara are exchanging information about hometowns, high schools, the weather, TV shows, and people they know. In which stage of relational escalation are they most likely to be?

Intensification

The relationship stage in which you begin to spend more time together, begin depending upon each other for self-confirmation, and increase the variety of activities you participate in together is the (blank) stage.

Intimacy

Leslie and Pat have reached a stage in their relationship in which they understand one another to the point that they can almost finish one another's sentences, openly discuss any issues, and are recognized among friends and family members as a committed couple. This would be an example of what stage in relational escalation?

Turmoil stage

Jose cringed as he thought about going home after work. Lately, he and Cassandra spend every minute together fighting. He used to think the way she played with her food was cute; now he finds it annoying. What stage of relational de-escalation are Jose and Cassandra facing?

Stagnation stage

Maria and Andre have been married for five years, but lately they hardly talk unless it's necessary. They used to take time out of their busy schedules to go on dates or just talk. It often feels like they're just going through the motions. What stage of relational de-escalation are Jose and Cassandra facing?

De-intensification stage

A couple experiences significantly less interaction and begins to no longer depend as much on one another for support. They also begin to question whether their relationship has a future. This illustrates which stage in relational de-escalation?

Post interaction stage

In which relationship stage does "grave depressing" occur?

Most people prefer indirect breakup strategies

What does research show about how people prefer to end relationship?

Unmet needs

According to the definition of interpersonal conflict given in the textbook, the intensity of a conflict relates to the intensity of the (blank).

An inevitable part of a relationship

Conflict is?

Constructive conflict

A conflict that helps build new insights and establishes new patterns in a relationship is a(n) (blank).

Lack of Flexibility

Which of the following is the most notable contributing factor to a destructive conflict?

Focus on the relationship rather than the individual

Which of the following is a recommendation of Wilmot and Hocker on how to build a constructive conflict?

Interpersonal power

The ability to influence another in the direction we desire is (blank).

Complementary

A relationship in which one partner willingly and continuously cedes the power to the other is (blank) relationship.

Symmetrical

Peter and Paul have discussions that typically sound like this: "Where do we go for dinner?" "I don't know, where would you like to go?" "I don't care, you decide." "Anything you like is fine with me." etc. Based on this example their relationship would be characterized as being (blank).

Parallel

Sandra and Jennifer have been roommates for several years and both love to entertain. When they want to plan a special evening for friends, Sandra plans the menu, visits several gourmet markets, and spends the afternoon happily preparing an exquisite feast. Jennifer, on the other hand, takes care of the invitations, cleans the apartment, and selects the entertainment for the evening. In regard to entertaining, this relationship would be characterized as being (blank).

Let our opinions and concerns be known while taking the listener's into account

Assertive communication is when we (blank).

Aggressive communication...

Karla and David are having a conflict over who should wash the dishes. Karla says to David, "You're just like your brother. You're lazy and don't care about anyone except for yourself. Your entire family is worthless!" This is an example of which of the following?

A link exists between verbal aggression and physical aggression or abuse

Which of the following statements is true concerning verbal aggression?

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