The Jains trace their origins back through the _______ Valley Civiliaztion, often equated with the _________ people mentioned in the Hindu chapter.
Throughout long history there were 24 _____ _______ who discovered the Jain way and taught it to their contemporaries. Each time it became lost, a new one arose to show the way once again. (much like a founding prophet of a dispensation)
The first Ford Finder was _______. The most recent Ford Finder is known as _________ (Great Hero)
__________ for Mahavira consisted of eating very little, seeking ot to take life, and practicing extreme activities in attempt to bring his body under the control of his spirit.
Finally, after ___ years of asceticism, Mahavira came to ____________, meaning that he became omniscient and knew all things about people and the universe. This cut across sex lines, a whole new way to release had been opened, a way not dependent upon Brahmins, castes, Bedic sacrifices, or scriptures.
The sky clads accept only __ texts claiming Mahavira's teachings have been lost, and the White clads accept ___ saying they are exact if not close to his words.
Ascetics must be nude, women cannot gain liberation, Mahavira was not married, ford Finder images are unclad, eat once a day, 2 possessions, and may carry scriptures
Sky clads believe
Nudity is not essential, men and women can gain liberation, Mahavira was married, Ford Finders images are clad and adorned, may eat more than once a day, may have 14 possessions, and may carry scriptures
White clads believe
Non-violence, Non-attachment, and relative pluralism
3 fundamental philosphies that support Jain life and thought
the liberated soul (having been released from the rouds of rebirth) and one still on the rounds of rebirth
Two kinds of souls:
The soul still on the rounds may be composed of anywhere from __-__ senses
Each should or life is potentially as _______ as any other and has the possibility of gaining liberation, therefore, each life should be preserved as much as possible.
Intentioonal and unintentional
There is _______ or __________ categories of violence and it is people's intent in an action that really matters.
domestic( washing clothes, preparing food, walking), professional (doctors or farmers), or defensive
3 kinds of unavoidable violence
persons, places, things, or attitudes
Jains are to become unattached to what 4 things?
refers to the fact that only omniscient persons see reality as it truly is and that other persons only see partial reality (elephant example)
No, and This is called nontheistic because Gods are not involved in human lives, but they can only inspire
Are Jains dependent on any Gods to help them?
For Jains, the _________ world must be escaped, as well as their body known as a prison that is not good.
The _____ is an independent, individual, eternal, self-existing entity which dwells in all life
When I do bad deeds my soul is weighted down and darkened and sinks in the universe and on the spectrum of life, but when I do good deeds my soul becomes brighter and rises in the universe.
monks & nuns vs. laypersons
There are two basic groups:
munks and nuns
men and women who enter the ascetic life, willing to take upon themselves vows, primary aim of monks and nuns is to purify themselves sufficiently to gian release
non-violence, truthfulness, not stealing (not even picking an apple off a tree), chastity, no attachments,
main jist of the vows
Active _____ men and women are firmly committed to the Jain life and commit themselves to certain daily religious practices. (morning recitations remembering the Ford Finders, worshiping one of its images, fasting during daylight hours for 48 hours,
The sky clad also known as:
the white clad also known as:
The texts containing the teachings of Mahavira are called the _______, and are the canonical literature - the scriptures - of Svetambara Jainism.
The texts had to be memorised since Jain monks and nuns were not allowed to possess religious books as part of their vow of _________, nor were they allowed to write.
being forgotten, misremembered, and famine that killed the monks and nuns
Mahaviara's texts were lost through:
principles of pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints, the notion that truth and reality are perceived differently form diverse points of view, no single view is complete truth
Violence or injury to life
Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called a _____ the conqueror or the victor
life force or souls
"Perfect or Absolute Knowledge", is the highest form of knowledge that a soul can attain.
depending on our works, our soul will sink or rise in the universe (Karma is bad and weighs you down)
Literally means suffering, The liberation from samsara and the concomitant suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and reincarnation.
men ascetics, generally scholars and teachers
worldly life characterized by continuous rebirths and reincarnations in various realms of existence
mundane souls still trapped in the cycle of rebirth
no dependence on anything Hindu, that is no longer relevent
male lay people
female lay people
2 sects in Jainism
a human being who achieves moksa ("liberation, enlightenment")