Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease Chapter 1 Part 2

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62 terms · Learning the language

BM

bowel movement

BP

blood pressure

CA

cancer

CAD

coronary artery disease

CBC

complete blood count

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CVA

cerebral vascular accident (stroke)

CXR

chest X-ray

Dx

diagnosis

GI

gastrointestinal

ICU

intensive care unit

IM

intramuscular

IV

intravenous

MI

myocardial infarction (heart attack)

NPO

nothing by mouth

P.O.

orally

p.r.n.

when needed

Q

every

SOB

shortness of breath

STAT

immediately

t.i.d.

three times a day

ER/ED

emergency room/emergency department

Rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the nose

Mathematical language of medicine

the metric system

Metabolism

All the chemical operations going on within the body, life-sustaining reactions inside the body

Anabolism

The process which simpler compounds are built up and used for growth, repair, and reproduction

Catabolism

The process which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances for energy

Homeostasis

The physiological process that monitors and maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium

Negative feedback loop

Brings the body back to its set point during a physiological change (temp. goes up, the body sweats to bring it back down)

Positive feedback

Increases the magnitude of a change in homeostasis

Signs of disease

Definitive, objective, measurable indicators of an illness

Vital signs

Signs vital to life, pulse (heart rate), blood pressure, body temperature, and respiratory rate

Symptoms of disease

Perceived by the patient, are subjective and difficult to measure

Syndrome

A set of symptoms and signs associated with and characteristic of one particular disease

Diagnosis

Identification of a disease determined by studying a patient's signs, symptoms, history, and results of tests

Chief complaint

Why a person went to the doctor

Prognosis

The prediction of the outcome of a disease

Acute disease

Rapid onset of disease, with severe symptoms for a short duration

Chronic disease

A disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time

Remission

Signs and symptoms of a chronic disease disappear

Relapses

Recurrences of a disease

Exacerbation

Signs and smptoms acutely flare up

Terminal

Prognosis is death

Pathogenic

Disease producing

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Breaks down waste products and helps produce vitamin K

Body's first defense

Skin

Body's second defense

Immune response

Inflammatory response

When tissues in the body are injured

Signs of inflammation

Redness, increased temperature at site of injury, swelling (edema), and pain

Specific immune response

Activated when your body is attacked by a germ that previously entered your body

Allergic/hypersensitivity reaction

Immune system goes too far causing tissue damage and impairing normal function

Routes of germ transmission

Vectors, contact transmission, common vehicle, and airborn

Vector borne

Organism is carried by an insect or other animal, by living inside the host or living on the host

Biological vector

Disease-carrying host, such as a rat, mosquito, or fly, that spreads infectious disease through bites

Mechanical vector

A living organism capable of transmitting infection by carrying the disease agent on its external body parts or surfaces

Contact transmission

Spread of disease by direct or indirect contact with person or contaminated objects

Common vehicle transmission

Occurs when consumable goods (blood, blood products, IV fluids, food, vegetables or seafood) become contaminated

Airborne transmission

The spread of droplets that contain a pathogen

Chain of infection

Creation of a source of infection, the transportation of the pathogen, entry into the body

Single important practice to reduce transmission of infection

Hand washing

PPE

Personal protective equipment

Gloves, isolation gowns, masks, gogles, face shields, and respiratiory protection masks

PPE

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