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Three 3 Major Philosophy areas of study

1. Epistemology (How do we know?) 2. Metaphysics (What is real?)(What truly exist? 3. Axiology (What is right? what should prevail?)(Ethics)

Inductive Reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").SCIENCE

Deductive Reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.) MATH

What does the term Philosophy mean?

The love of wisdom

What is meant by rational reflection?

Logic deals with the difference between a valid and an invalid argument.

Why is Philosophy said to be normative?

Unlike other disciplines Philosophy tries to distinguish, in very broad ways, what is from and what ought to be.

What is the subject matter of philosophy?

Any area of human concern

What is the constructive and analytical part of philosophy?

Constructive: philosophy directs itself to developing a total world view. Philosophy is best characterized as a rational examination or critique of the most basic elements of our everyday experience and belief

Why is the question "what is a human being?" a philosophical question?

Rational examination or critique of the most basic elements of our everyday experience and belief.

"Nothing escapes the light of philosophical criticism... not even the assumptions of philosophers themselves" explain

There are no absolute starting points in philosophy

a. Know what question the three Pre-Socratic, Milesia philosophers b. what is it that they sought to answer

a. Thales(water), Anaximander (boundless), Anaximenes(air) b. what is permanent in existence

what were Heraclitus- ideas?

all things are flux" Ultimate medium, ordering principle underlying change- (Fire)

Pythagoras- best known for:

Mathematics, basis of all reality.

what was Parmenides known for? and what were the 3 reason's given by his student Zeno?

basis of reality non-contradiction. Parmenides & Zeno- 3 examples A) Racecourse B) Achilles and the tortoise C) Arrow

Sophists- Protagoras and Gorgias argued about..

argued that truth depends on the skills of the arguer, even defend the weaker, or unjust cause. There is NO truth, truth is made by "winners"

What is the problem in Western philosophy of the one and the many?

A. the concern w/reality as an underlying substratum B. the problem of the "one and the many" how the account for the many different objects in the world of ordinary experience on the basis of one unchanging substance.

Why must basic reality be eternal, unchanging, and undifferentiated?

P22 When you think logically, you must be thinking about something, and that something is real, though it is not the kind of thing you can see, touch, or locate in space and time.

Define Idealism:

The metaphysical view that explains reality as comprising minds and ideas; according to idealists, all reality is mind-dependent. Often postulated as an absolute mind, as in Hegel's idealism; or God

Rationalism

The view that appeals to reason, not the senses, as the source of knowledge. In its most extreme form, rationalism insists that all knowledge is derived from reason.

How did Plato combine the Pythagorean and Eleatic conception of reality with the Socratic concern w/reality?

Plato combined the Pythagorean and Eleatic conception of reality with the Socratic concern w/morality, and explained the multiplicity of the ordinary physical world on the basis of eternal, unchanging, ideal entities. Justice is an ideal entity, along w/the mathematical entities of Pythagorean, and these ideal entities are the only genuine real things in the world.

Define- Apology:

from the Greek word defense

Who was Socrates?

Philosopher was an important figure in Western Philosophy and was sentence to death because of views, he never wrote or established any schools.

What does the Pythian Priestess from the Oracle of Delphi tell Chaeophon as to who is the wisest of men?

Chaereohon went to the Oracle of the god of Delphi; the oracle prophesizes that Socrates is the wisest man.

What does Socrates do upon hearing the news?

Socrates thought it was odd for a god to name him as a wisest man.

Which three classes of citizens does Socrates question?

Politicians, Poets, and Artisans

Who is the last class of citizens Socrates interviews?

Artisans

What does Socrates conclude about wisdom after his search?

Socrates found out, after much indignation of famed wise men, those with high reputation had little or no knowledge of what they spoke of.

What is Socrates' view of death?

Socrates didn't view death as the worst thing possible, he believed that them putting him to death would be worse for them because they would be lacking knowledge and there for go to sleep and he would not know when another would come to awaken them

Does Socrates agree to stop philosophizing?

No, he had a zeal for philosophy and would not adhere to their threats of death.

What is Socrates chief concern?

That it was the will of God , the quest to true wisdom was ordered from the gods. He would not abandon God's will.

Socrates soul

(psyche, nous, mind) is seat of activity of knowing; it is one's capacity for intelligence and character, structure of personality.

Socratic Method

rigorous dialogue called "dialectic', a kind of "intellectual midwifery', which coaxes out the truth that is already there to be "birthed".

Socrates: "To know the good is to do the good

Knowledge=virtue

Socrates introduced the teleological way of looking at the universe which is...

things have a function or purpose.

Plato: Theory of Knowledge (Epistemology):

Rationalism, know the allegory of the cave: education is live converision

Plato's concept of Soul- soul has 3 parts

a. appetite (body) b. spirit (from will) c. reason (from mind) -{ highest}

Plato: Virtue as fulfillment of function. Soul's 3 parts have 3 corresponding virtues:

a. appetite(from body)
b. spirit's virtue= courage
c. reason's virtue= wisdom
d. 4th virtue, justice, when all 3 function well.

According to Plato, what is the cause of evil?

Moral evil is the result of ignorance. The Cause of Evil: Ignorance or Forgetfulness

a.Empiricism depends on the principles of ...b. Based on sense experience "A posteriori"

a. regularity and resemblance b. post-experiential

Rationalism principle

mind comprehends comprehends principles, Forms, ideas that already exist in reality. Rationalism- developed by Plato; furthered Descartes

6 Classical steps in the scientific method.

A. Awareness & definition of a problem
B. Observation & Collection of relevant data
C. Organization & Classification of data
D. Formulation of hypotheses (tentative statements about the relationship between things) Uses both empirical & rational elements. If X then Y is the usual form.
E. Deductions from Hypotheses
F. Testing & Verification of Hypotheses

What are the four different types of authoritarianism?

A. Culture/Tradition B. Majority Opinion C. Prestige & Expert Opinion D. Charismatic Authority (Martin Luther King) (Hilter)

What is the epistemology argues that one must simply "believe" and such belief is a non-rational "leap of faith"?

" leap of faith" - Existentialism

Major critiques of Skepticism

#1 its illogical #2 it is impractical
1.Although it is good to have reasonable doubt, to assert that knowledge is impossible implies that something is known about the nature of knowledge in the first place.
2. An uncompromissing skepticism fosters a noncommittal attitude that makes all human activity that is consistent and intelligent virtually impossible [eg. one can promote skepticism in a philosophy class, but as soon as one walks outside the door, one is faced w/decisions that make skepticism an impossibility for any thinking person.

Which epistemology argues for anti-foundationalism, no objective foundation for knowledge, no unchanging thing to ensure accurate knowledge of truth; no one way?

Postmodernism

Analytic Philosophy-the two major sub-schools

(1) logical positivism (historical) : view that philosophy has no method independent of that of science and that philosophy's only task is logical analysis.
(2) linguistic analysis (Contemporary)

Commonsense realism (naïve realism)-

position that when one perceives an object, one experiences that object as it actually exists.

Contemporary realism-

mediating realism and dualism. Modern, complex theories of perception postulate: (a) a world of objects (b) a conscious organism or functioning brain, and (c) a natural process by which the object and the organism are connected. [Contemporary neuro-science theories of cognitive perception]

Subjective Idealism (mentalism)

what a person perceives as "real" is made up entirely of ideas in the mind. (God is usually the source) [Berkley]

Epistemological dualism

(representative theory of perception) both objects & exist, and they're separate and distinct from each other. [Locke]

Phenomenalism

(mediating idealism and dualism)- all that one can know is how a thing appears (the phenomenon), never the thing-in-itself (noumenon) [Kaunt]

Correspondence Theory:

a statement or position is true if it corresponds to objective reality.

Coherence Theory:

a property exhibited by a related group of consistent propositions. The position is logically consistent or coherent.

.Pragmatic Theory:

What is true is what works; consequences. "By their frutits, you shall know them."

What is the knowledge/ belief distinction?

Knowledge is something that can be proved and belief is something that you believe is true but hasn't been proved.

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