The way social positions, social roles, and networks of social relationships are arranged in our institutions, such as the economy, polity, education, and organization of family.
The sharing of outlooks and modes of behavior among individuals who face similar place-based circumstances (such as poor segregated neighborhoods) or have the same social networks (as when members of particular racial or ethnic groups share a particular way of understanding social life and cultural scripts that guide their behavior.
The behavior of individuals within society. ex: stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination in hiring, job promotions.
the "machinery" of society that exists to promote ongoing relations among members of the larger group. Ex: Jim Crow laws, school tracking (segregation), racial profiling by police, and redlining by banks, cases in which ideologies about group differences are embedded in organizational arrangements.
Job Spatial Mismatch
Notion that work and people are located in two different places. The opportunities for employment are geographically disconnected from the people who need the jobs.
Real wage growth
Wages adjusted for inflation.
Defined in the U.S. economy as those in the labor market who have been out of work for more than six months.
Tight labor market
Ample jobs for all applicants. Job vacancies, unemployment is of short duration, wages are higher. Draw in workers who previously dropped out of the labor force. Status of all workers improves.
Slack labor market
A labor market with high unemployment. Employers can be more selective in recruiting and granting promotions. Can inflate job requirements. Discrimination rises in such a climate.
Wealth for a few would eventually "trickle down"- financial well-being for all.
Ideology of racial domination w/ two key features. Beliefs that one race is either biologically or culturally inferior to another and the use of such beliefs to rationalize or prescribe the way that the "inferior" race should be treated in this society, as well as to explain its social position the way that the "inferior" race should be treated in this society.
Shared outlooks, modes of behavior, traditions, belief systems, worldviews, values, skills, etc. emerge from patterns of intragroup interaction in settings created by discrimination and segregation and that reflect collective experiences within those settings.
Shared views on how the world works, The way individuals in particular groups, communities, or societies develop an understanding of how the world works. Used in decision making.
Shared group constructions of reality.
A perception that blacks are responsible for their own economic predicament and therefore undeserving of special government support.
Magnifies the problems associated with poverty in general: joblessness, crime, delinquency, drug trafficking, broken families, and dysfunctional schools. Increases the likelihood of social isolation (from mainstream institutions). Adversely affects one's chances in life, beginning in early childhood and adolescence.
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
Program necessitated by the massive mortgage foreclosures during the Great Depression. Began underwriting mortgages in an effort to enable citizens to become homeowners. But excluded certain urban areas- if likely loss of investment in those areas.
Assessed largely by racial composition, Home owners hoping to purchase a home in certain neighborhoods were universally denied mortgages, regardless of financial qualifications. This severely restricted opportunities for building and maintaining quality housing in the inner city. Clearly motivated by racial bias.
Ronald Regan's plan in the 1980s that involved sharp spending cuts on direct aid to cities dramatically reduced budgets for general revenue sharing. Included economic development assistance, social service block grants, local public works, job training. Many of these programs designed to help disadvantaged individuals gain some traction in attaining financial security. Non-racial policy on the surface, but nonetheless has indirectly contributed to crystallization of the inner-city ghetto.
Among young black men in the inner-city- includes making sexual conquests, hanging out in the street after school, taking party drugs and listening to hip-hop music. Patterns of behavior hindrance to social mobility in the larger society.
Belief that people are poor because of their own shortcomings. Poverty can be viewed through lens of personal achievement and failure. Most Americans believe that opportunity for economic advancement is widely available. Economic outcomes are determined by individual's efforts and talents (or their lack) and that in general, economic inequality is fair. Individualistic explanations of poverty (lack of effort of ability, poor moral characters, slack work skills) that we favor over structural explanations (lack of adequate schooling for example). Citizens in other Western democracies do not share the American emphasis on individualistic explanations for the problems of poverty.
The effect or people grouping themselves together according to common characteristics.
Moving to Opportunity (MTO)
An experiment, or a housing pilot program, undertaken by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) between 1994 and 1998. Inspired by the Gautreaux program created in 1976. Considered superior to Gautreaux. Eliminated self-selection bias since based on randomized experimental design. Mixed evidence for neighborhood effects. However, still had serious design problems which makes it hard to generalize the results. Involved a lottery. One group-rent in the private market, one group restricted to private rentals in low pov areas, and one group no vouchers (control group). Many relocated to similar neighborhoods. MTO families not live in poverty that long, remain in same school districts.
Created under a 1976 court order resulting from a judicial finding that the Chicago Housing Authority had deliberately segregated black families through its site selection and tenant selection policies. Named for Dorothy Gautreaux, who started the lawsuit program to remedy previous segregation by offering black public housing residents a chance to obtain subsidized housing. Many relocated to white suburbs. Some say there was self-selection bias involved in this program and thus, its findings are not completely accurate. Many families in this moved to white suburban areas that were significantly less impoverished.
Norms of Resignation
Children can be tought ______________. They observe behavior of adults and learn the "appropriate" action or response in different situations independently of their own direct experiences. Children may acquire a disposition to interpret the way the world works that reflects a strong sense that other members of society disrespect them because they are black.
Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988
Reduced the strengths of barriers involving discrimination in the housing market. Middle-income African Americans increased their efforts to move from concentrated black poverty areas to more desirable neighborhoods in the metropolitan area, including white neighborhoods.