whats the Big Bang Theory?
All matter was a one point and exploded outward.
Earth is 13.7 billion years old
what are the Energy sources of disasters?
Radioactive decay - alpha/beta particles, gamma rays
Whats a mineral
what are the 8 most abundant elements on earth?
Only Stupid Ass Idiots Make Cocaine and Sell to Police
(oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium)
what is the Crystal Form?
internal arrangement of atoms
what is a cleavage?
flat break in a mineral
What is the hardness scale?
Moh's hardness scale: Texas Girls Can Flirt And Other Queer Things Can Do (talc, gypsum, calcite, flourite, apetite, orthoclase, quartz, topas, corundum, diamond)
Where do minerals form?
aqueous and magmatic environment
Properties of Orthoclase
properties of quartz
6 sided crysal
properties of muscovite
KAI2 (very long one)
properties of olivine
properties of halite
properties of calcite
polished to be very beautiful and expensive
only 15 are precious
what are Igneous rocks?
formed from cooling magma
What are the 2 types of magma?
basaltic - flows easily low SiO2
Granitic - very viscous high SiO2
Whats the great molasses flood?
1919 in boston
21 dead 150 injured
How do we classify igneous rocks?
by the composition and texture
What are the coarse grained igneous rocks named?
Coarse - Good Dogs Get Prizes (granite, diorite, gabbro, peridotite)
What are the fine grained igneous rocks named?
Fine - Football Ready And Break (Fine, Rhyolite, andesite, basalt)
Where does magma originate?
30 to 120 miles below surface in magma chambers
What are the 4 intrusive rock formations?
Whats a batholith?
Large body of coarse grained igneous rock
whats a stock?
A small batholith
Whats a dike?
igneous intrusion that cuts across other rocks
whats a sill?
igneous intrusion parallel to other rocks
What does the energy of an eruption depend on?
composition of magma and amount of dissolved gas
what is tephra?
any material thrown from a volcano
what is ash?
small particles from volcano
whats a bomb?
what is pyroclastic flow?
hot ash and gas rolling down the sides of a volcano
What happened with mount vesuvius?
erupted 79 AD
covered cities of pompeii and herculaneum
What happened with mount st helens?
erupted in 1980
3 in red zone
3 out of red zone
What was unusual about mt saint helens?
the first blast was a lateral blast and extended way farther than the red zone
What are some features surrounding mt saint helens?
lava tubes, lava dome, tree casts, columnar jointing, tephra
what is the north flank bulge?
a huge bulge on the side of mt saint helens
What is a sedimentary rock?
a rock formed from the accumulation of sediment
Whats inside a sedimentary rock?
oil, water, and gas
Whats the sedimentary process?
Weathering - rocks are destroyed
Transport - sediment is transported
Deposition - the sediment settles
Cementation - the sediment cements together
What are the two categories of sedimentary rocks?
What is a detrital sedimentary rock?
a rock classified according to grain size
how do we classify the grain sizes of detrital sedimentary rocks?
gravel - over 2 mm
sand - between .062 to 2 mm
silt - between .004 and .062 mm
clay - less than .004 mm
What rock is composed of gravel?
what rock is composed of sand?
what rock is composed of silt?
what rock is composed of clay?
What is a chemical sedimentary rock?
rock classified by the minerology
What are the two rock names for chemical sedimentary rocks?
what is limestone composed of?
what is rock salt composed of?
what are some features of sedimentary rocks?
whats a fossil?
remains of dead organisms
what is a bed
layers of sedimentary rocks
what are ripple marks?
marks left from current moving over sediment
what are mud cracks?
when water evaporates from mud and the mud dries up
what are cross beds?
inclined layers in beds
what is porosity?
empty space that can be occupied by a fluid
What are metamorphic rocks?
rocks formed in the solid state
how do we classify metamorphic rocks?
by their foliation
what are the foliated rocks?
what is slate?
parent rock is shale
what is a schist rock?
parent rock is slate
what is a gneiss?
parent rock is schist
banded metamorphic rock
What are the non foliated rocks?
what is quartzite?
what is marble?
what are the principles of relative time?
what is uniformitarianism?
all things that happen now happened in the past
what is original horizontality?
all layers of rock settle horizontally
what is superposition?
the older the rock the deeper it is
oldest rocks are on the bottom
what is cross cutting relationship?
anything that cuts across rock layers is younger
what is an unconformity?
gaps in time in the rock layers
by erosion or a period of non-deposition
what is faunal succession?
all species change and die
what is correlation?
one rock layer can coordinate with another rock layer from a different part of the world and we conclude they correlate to each other and are from the same time period
whats the pre cambrian age?
4.6 to 570 billion years ago
low diversity of life
whats the paleozoic age?
570 to 250 million years ago
explosion of life
whats the mesozoic age?
250 to 65 million years ago
giant reptiles (dinosaurs)
whats the cenozoic age?
65 million years ago to present
age of mammels
what is absolute time?
an actual number age of rocks
what are the estimates of earth's age?
1st based on salinity of oceans
2nd based on heat loss of earth
3rd based on thickness of sed. rocks
4th based on radioactive decay
what is radioactive decay?
destruction of atoms where the parent rock becomes a daughter rock
what is a half life?
time it takes for half of the parent rocks atoms to decay to the daughter
whats the geologic time scale?
time was originally based on fossils but now is based on radioactive decay