MOD 14

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1. Causes of secondary amenorrhea other than pregnancy and menopause include which of the following?

A. Pituitary tumors
B. Thyroid disorders
C. Extreme weight loss
D. All of the above

Pituitary tumors, thyroid disorders, and extreme weight loss can all result in secondary amenorrhea.
Correct Answer: D

2. Polycystic ovarian syndrome usually causes:

B. infertility.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome results in stimulation of follicle growth without ovulation and generally leads to infertility.

3. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the cyclic recurrence of what type of changes?

A. Behavioral
B. Physical
C. Psychological
D. All of the above

Changes occurring with PMS are behavioral, physical, and psychological. Common problems include depression, headache, irritability, myalgias, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and sleep disturbance.
D

4. Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by:

B. sexually transmitted infections.

Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by infection with sexually transmitted organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

5. Which of the following sexually transmitted infections are associated with cervicitis and can result in pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and the presence of purulent cervical discharge?

A. Chlamydia
B. Trichomoniasis
C. Gonorrhea
D. All of the above

Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and gonorrhea are all sexually transmitted infections that can lead to cervicitis.
Correct Answer: D

6. The protrusion of the uterus into the vaginal canal and possibly outside of the vagina is a condition known as uterine:

C. prolapse.

Uterine prolapse is descent of the uterus into the vaginal canal, which can progress to protrusion outside of the vagina.

7. Dermoid cysts are tumors that contain elements of skin, hair, glands, muscle, cartilage, and bone that can eventually develop into:

A. ovarian cancer.

Dermoid cysts are ovarian tumors that are generally asymptomatic but must be removed to prevent the development of ovarian cancer.

8. Pain in the abdomen or pelvis occurring with dysmenorrhea, dyschezia, dyspareunia, vaginal bleeding, infertility, adhesions, and scarring anywhere in the abdomen and pelvis is generally caused by a condition called:

A. endometriosis.

Endometriosis is the presence of ectopic endometrial glands that can be found throughout the body, especially in the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Endometriosis can lead to a wide variety of pelvic and abdominal symptoms.

9. Which of the following statements about ovarian cancer is false?

B. Women 45 years and younger are at the greatest risk of developing ovarian cancer.

The highest incidence of ovarian cancer is in women over 80 years old.

10. Urethritis is a common disorder of the male urethra and is most commonly caused by:

C. sexually transmitted infection.

Urethritis is most often caused by sexually transmitted infections from microorganisms such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

11. Penile cancer is associated with which of the following risk factors?

A. Human papilloma virus infection
B. Smoking
C. Black race
D. All of the above

Major risk factors for developing penile cancer are human papillomavirus infection, smoking, and black race.
Correct Answer: D

12. An abnormal dilation of a vein within the spermatic cord is known as a (an):

C. varicocele.

An abnormal dilation of a vein within the spermatic cord that can lead to infertility is known as a varicocele.

13. The condition in which one or both testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum in early childhood development is called:

A. cryptorchidism.

With cryptorchidism, the testicle may remain in the abdomen or arrest in the inguinal canal instead of descending into the scrotum.

14. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) results in:

B. urethral obstruction.

Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostatic tissue in BPH lead to the formation of nodules that compress the urethra and cause urethral obstruction.

15. The most important risk factor related to the development of cervical cancer is:

A. infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Most cases of cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia are associated with HPV, a sexually transmitted infection.

16. Excessive uterine contractions and endometrial shedding resulting in painful menstruation is a result of:

A. excessive prostaglandin levels.
Primary dysmenorrhea is the result of excessive prostaglandin F2 alpha levels in the myometrium and endometrium.

17. To prevent prostate cancer, men should be encouraged to consume a diet low in:

C. fat.

A diet high in fat is a risk factor for prostate cancer.

18. The pathophysiology of prostate cancer involves all of the following factors except:

B. increased dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Decreased levels of DHT are associated with the development of prostate cancer.

19. Which of the following statements concerning benign breast disease is true?

C. Some benign fibrocysts are associated with the development of breast cancer.

Fibrocysts with epithelial hyperplasia are most commonly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

20. Which of the following hormonal abnormalities is associated with the development of breast cancer?

D. Elevated estrogen

Elevated estrogen and progesterone are associated with the development of breast cancer.

21. Failure to menstruate and develop secondary sex characteristics by age 14 is a condition called:

C. primary amenorrhea.

Failure to menstruate and develop secondary sex characteristics by age 14 is a condition called primary amenorrhea.

22. Irregular menstrual cycles, heavy bleeding, and passage of large clots are symptoms of:

A. dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Irregular and/or heavy bleeding with passage of large clots that often results in anemia is a condition called dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

23. Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease include all of the following except:

D. dyspnea.

Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease include abdominal pain, dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and dyschezia (painful defecation), as well as pelvic pain upon menstruation, physical activity, and/or pelvic examination. Normally, pelvic inflammatory disease does not manifest with dyspnea (difficulty breathing).

24. Vaginitis caused by infection is often related to:

A. antibiotic use.

Oral antibiotic use can decrease healthy levels of Lactobacillus acidophilus, resulting in overgrowth of normal vaginal flora.

25. A cystocele commonly results in:

A. stress incontinence.

A cystocele occurs when the bladder descends into the anterior aspect of the vaginal canal and usually results in bladder control problems such as stress incontinence.

26. In a person with endometriosis, where can endometrial implants be found?

A. Abdominal cavity
B. Ovaries
C. Lungs
D. All of the above

Ectopic endometrial tissue that responds to hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle may be found throughout the abdominal, pelvic, and even pleural cavities.
Correct Answer: D

27. The Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) is used for routine screening of which gynecological cancer?

C. Cervical

The Pap smear is routinely used to screen for cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.

28. In stage _____ cervical cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs such as the bladder or rectum.

D. IV

In stage IV, the cancer has spread to other organs in the pelvic cavity, such as the bladder or rectum, or to distant organs, such as the lungs.

29. Risk factors for the development of endometrial cancer include:

A. obesity, early menarche, and infertility.

Risk factors for the development of endometrial cancer include, among others, obesity, early menarche, and infertility.

30. Which of the following disorders of the male reproductive system is a surgical emergency?

A. Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency, since the rotation of the testes can interrupt the blood supply to the testes.

31. In premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder refers to which of the following symptoms?

C. Depression

A small percentage of women with severe PMS experience cyclic depression or dysphoria. Fatigue is also a commonly reported symptom of PMS.

32. The major endocrine abnormality associated with the development of polycystic ovarian syndrome is:

B. hyperinsulinemia.

Hyperinsulinemia plays a key role in androgen excess and the subsequent development of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

33. Which of the following symptoms suggests that a woman should be carefully evaluated for breast cancer?

A. Dimpling of the skin on the breast
B. Enlarged axillary lymph nodes
C. Abnormal discharge from the nipple
D. All of the above

Dimpling of the skin often occurs at the site of a tumor of the breast. When breast cancer metastasizes, the cancer cells first migrate to the axillary lymph nodes, manifesting with enlarged lymph nodes. Abnormal discharge from the nipple is also a sign of advanced breast cancer.
Correct Answer: D

34. Sexual maturation occurring before age 6 in girls or age 9 in boys is a condition known as:

C. precocious puberty.

Early sexual maturation is a rare condition known as precocious puberty.

35. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for which prostate problem?

D. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

The PSA test is used to screen for prostate tissue hyperplasia, which is present in BPH and prostate cancer.

36. The risk of testicular cancer is greater for men who have a history of:

B. cryptorchidism.

The risk of testicular cancer is greater for men who have a history of cryptorchidism.

37. Symptoms of prostate cancer are similar to:

C. benign prostatic hyperplasia.

The major symptom of prostate cancer is unrelieved urethral obstruction and decreased urinary flow. These problems also occur with BPH.

38. Which of the following is the most important risk factor in the development of prostate cancer?

A. Older age

The risk of prostate cancer increases significantly with age, with more than 75% of prostate cancer diagnosed in men over 75 years of age.

39. Galactorrhea is a disorder of the:

C. breast.

Galactorrhea is marked by inappropriate lactation from the breast.

40. One factor that offers a protective effect against the development of breast cancer is:

A. regular exercise.
Regular physical activity may reduce overall risk of breast cancer and may be related to weight loss and subsequent alterations in hormone levels.

41. Overdevelopment of breast tissue in males is a condition known as:

D. gynecomastia.

Overdevelopment of breast tissue in males is a condition known as gynecomastia.

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