Language Vocabulary

32 terms by cynthiaabc 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

language

a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication

culture

the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by members of a society

standard language

the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life

dialect

local or regional characteristics of a language

isogloss

a line that separates dialects

mutuall intelligibility

the ability of two people to understand each other while speaking

dialect chains

a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related

languages family

languages which share a fairly distant origin

subfamilies

divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent

sound shift

slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin

backward reconstruction

the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language

Proto-Indo-European

linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European Language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin Greek and Sanskrit languages

extinct language

a language no longer used

deep reconstruction

process by which an extinct language is recreated

nostratic

believed to be the root of Proto-Indo-European as well as Kartvelian

language divergence

new languages are formed

language convergence

languages form together into one

Renfrew hypothesis

three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, gave rise to three language families: Indo-European, Arabic Languages, and mid-eastern languages

conquest theory

Proto-Indo-European west of the horseback of the fertile cresent

dispersal theory

Proto-Indo-Europeans were first crried eastward into southwest asia

Romance Languages

languages based on roman

Germanic languages

languages based on german

Slavic languages

languages based on slovakian

lingua franca

a mixture of Italian French Greek Spanish and Arabic

pidgin language

when parts of two or more languages come together to form a simplified structure and vocabulary

Creole language

a mixture of languages

monolingual states

a state that uses one language

multilingual states

a state that uses many languages

official language

the promoted language of a region

global language

language used commonly around the world

place

uniqueness of a location

toponym

the ability to know something about a place by its name

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set