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Kennedy/Cohen/Bailey; The American Pageant: key tems, people and chronology

Republicanism

A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. Government is based on consent of the governed.

Radical whigs

A group of British political commentators who feared the British monarchy and Parliament because it posed a threat to liberty.

Merchantilism

Economic policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to gain wealth and power.

Sugar Act

1764 - British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.

Quartering Act

1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies

Stamp Tax

passed by Parliament in 1765, it required colonists to purchase a small stamp to be affixed to legal and other documents

Admiralty Courts

British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges, without a jury.

Stamp Act Congress

group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist consent

Nonimportant agreements

agreements that promiced to stop importing goods taxed by Townshend Acts

Sons of Liberty

A radical group of colonists formed a secret society in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors

Declaratory Act

In 1766, English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the Declaratory Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. It also restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act.

Townsend Acts

1767- Taxes placed on glass, tea, silk, paper, lead. 1770, taxes were dropped but tea tax remained

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

Commitees of correspondence

Commitees created by the Massachussets House of Representatives in the 1760s to help towns and colonies share information about resisting British laws

Boston Tea Party

1773; protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor

"Intolerable Acts"

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Quebec Act

1774; Allowed the French residents of quebec to retain their traditional, political, and religious institutions, and extended the boundaries southward to the Ohio River. Mistakenly perceived by the colonists to be part of Parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

The Association

1775; Non-importation agreement crafted during the 1st Continental Congress calling for the complete boycott of British goods.

The Battles of Lexington and Concord

The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of the troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops

John Hancock

American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress and was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence (1737-1793)

George Grenville

Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers to end smuggling.

Charles Townshend

government official, close to the king, likeable "Champagne Charlie", sponsored the Townshend Acts: taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea

Crispus Attucks

A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre

George III

King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1820; Tthe American colonies were lost during his reign; he became insane in 1811 and his son (George IV) acted as regent until 1820 (1738-1820)

Lord North

Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong.

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader and patriot an organizer of the Boston Tea Party and signer of the Declaration of Independence (1722-1803)

Thomas Hutchinson

Governor of Boston who ordered cargo of tea to be unloaded in Boston despite colonial objection

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)

Baron von Steuben

volunteer, general in Prussia,offered help to Patriots after Washington won the battles at Trenton & Princeton, arrived at Valley Forge in the spring of 1778

Lord Dunmore

Royal governor of Virginia who issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army

!st Navigation Laws to control colonial commerce

1650

Board of Trade assumes governance of colonies

1696

Seven Years War (French and Indian War) ends

1763

Sugar Act

1764

Quartering Act / Stamp Act / Stamp Act Congress

1765

Declaratory Act

1766

Townshend Acts / New York legislature suspended by Parliament

1767

British troops occupy Boston

1768

Boston Massacre / All Townshend Acts except the tea tax are repealed

1770

Committees of Correspondence formed

1772

British East India Company granted tea monopoly / Governor Hutchinson's actions provoke the Boston Tea Party

1773

"Intolerable Acts" / Quebec Act / 1st Continental Congress / The Association boycotts British goods

1774

Battles of Lexington and Concord

1775

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