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atoms

smallest unit of matter

molecule

2 or more atoms

cell

2 or more molecules

tissues

2 or more cells

oran

2 or more tissues

organ system

2 or more organs

organism

smallest unit that properties life

population

2 or more organisms

community

all species

ecosystem

physical factor

eukaryotic cell

nucleus, protists, plants, fungi, animal

prokaryotic cell

simple and smaller. Such as bacteria and archea

life

have atleast one cell, reproduction, metabolism, homeostasis

cellular organization

all living thing are composed of at least one cell

metabolism

all livin gthings process energy to maintain iteself, grow, and to make more cells

homeostasis

all living things maintain stable internal environments to optimize condiions for metabolism and other processes.

growth and reproduction

all organisms have the capacity for growth and reproduction

heredity

dna passing on

matter

has mass that takes up space. all matter is made up of small particles called atoms

atoms

all atoms have the same structure:smallest particles that retain properties of an element(protons, neutrons, electrons)

core

dense nucleus comprised of subatomic particles

protons

positive charge

neutrons

neutral charge

electrons

negative charge

orbits the nucleus

electrons

atomic #

number of protons

mass #

protons + neutrons

element

atoms with same # of protons

isotope

different number of neutrons

determines the chemical behavior of atoms.

electrons

associated with energy

electrons

potential energy

due to energy of position

field of energy

around the atom is arranged levels called electron fields

1st shell can hold?

2 electrons

2nd shell can hold?

8 electrons

3rd shell can hold?

8 electrons

what determines whether atoms will interact?

the number and arrangement of their electrons.

true or false:electrons in the outer most energy level can participate in bonds?

true

do atoms wish to be stable or unstable?

stable

What do atoms bond to form?

molecules

Molecules contain atoms of how many elements?

one

Molecules of compounds contain more than how many elements?

one

molecule

a group of atoms held together by energy.

Chemical bond

the energy holding two atoms together

3 types of chemical bonds

ionic, cations, and anions.

ionic

equal number of electrons and protons that has no net charge

cations

loses an electron and becomes positively charged

anions

gains electron(s) and becomes negatively charged

covalent bonding

(sharing) atoms share a pair of or pairs of electrons to fill outer most shell.

hydrogen bonds

caused by or require weak covalent bonds where one nucleus attracts the shared electrons more than another nucleus.

nonpolar covalent bond

atoms share the electrons equally

polar covalent bond

the atoms do not share the electrons equally and one atom is more electronegative

the more electronegative of an atom

the ore strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself

unequal sharing of electrons causes what?

a partial positive or negative charge for each atom or molecule

cohesion

collectivley, hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together(water vs. water)

adhesion

attraction between different substances. Ex: between water and plant cell walls(water vs. something else)

surface tension

a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid.surface tension is related to cohesion.

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