smallest unit of matter
2 or more atoms
2 or more molecules
2 or more cells
2 or more tissues
2 or more organs
smallest unit that properties life
2 or more organisms
nucleus, protists, plants, fungi, animal
simple and smaller. Such as bacteria and archea
have atleast one cell, reproduction, metabolism, homeostasis
all living thing are composed of at least one cell
all livin gthings process energy to maintain iteself, grow, and to make more cells
all living things maintain stable internal environments to optimize condiions for metabolism and other processes.
growth and reproduction
all organisms have the capacity for growth and reproduction
dna passing on
has mass that takes up space. all matter is made up of small particles called atoms
all atoms have the same structure:smallest particles that retain properties of an element(protons, neutrons, electrons)
dense nucleus comprised of subatomic particles
orbits the nucleus
number of protons
protons + neutrons
atoms with same # of protons
different number of neutrons
determines the chemical behavior of atoms.
associated with energy
due to energy of position
field of energy
around the atom is arranged levels called electron fields
1st shell can hold?
2nd shell can hold?
3rd shell can hold?
what determines whether atoms will interact?
the number and arrangement of their electrons.
true or false:electrons in the outer most energy level can participate in bonds?
do atoms wish to be stable or unstable?
What do atoms bond to form?
Molecules contain atoms of how many elements?
Molecules of compounds contain more than how many elements?
a group of atoms held together by energy.
the energy holding two atoms together
3 types of chemical bonds
ionic, cations, and anions.
equal number of electrons and protons that has no net charge
loses an electron and becomes positively charged
gains electron(s) and becomes negatively charged
(sharing) atoms share a pair of or pairs of electrons to fill outer most shell.
caused by or require weak covalent bonds where one nucleus attracts the shared electrons more than another nucleus.
nonpolar covalent bond
atoms share the electrons equally
polar covalent bond
the atoms do not share the electrons equally and one atom is more electronegative
the more electronegative of an atom
the ore strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself
unequal sharing of electrons causes what?
a partial positive or negative charge for each atom or molecule
collectivley, hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together(water vs. water)
attraction between different substances. Ex: between water and plant cell walls(water vs. something else)
a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid.surface tension is related to cohesion.