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The basic blocks of heredity are ______

genes

The ______ gland secretes growth hormones and hormones that stimulate labor in pregnant womend

pituitary

Most normal human cells contain ______ chromosomes that are organized into ______ pairs

46; 23

The testes and ovaries produce the hormones ___,____, and _____.

testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

The EEG measure the brain's ______ activity.

electrical

The ________ , which is located in the forebrain, is involved in learning and memory.

limbic system

_____ studies evaluate people who are related to try to determine the roles of heredity and environment.

Kinship

The ______ is the part of the hindbrain that helps control such vital functions as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.

Medulla

A CAT scan uses ____ beams to create a three-dimensional view of the brain.

X-Ray

Hormones that affect the body's metabolism are secreted by the ____ gland.

thyroid

The function of the ____ is to carry messages away from the neuron's cell body.

axon

the autonomic nervous system is divided into the ______ and ______ nervous systems.

symatic; parasymatic

The two part of the nervous system re the _____ nervous system and the _______nervous system.

Peripheral; Central

The ________ transmits messages between the brain and the muscles and glands.

nervous system

Each hemisphere of cerebral cortex is divided in ____ lobes.

4

Something that produces a response us called a ____.

stimulus

A response that is automatic, or not learned, is called a ______.

unconditioned response

The method of ______ involved exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it.

flooding

A stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a condition response is a ______.

conditioned stimulus

A _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is removed.

negative

______ is the method of teaching complex behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts.

Shaping

The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called ______

latent learning

Reinforcements are applied with a set amount of time between them on a _____ schedule.

fixed interval

The first step in the PQ4R method involves _____ the subject matter in a textbook.

previewing

A ____ reinforcer is learned and becomes effective by being paired wit such reinforcer as food and shelter.s

secondary

The "4R's" of the PQ4R method are:

read, recite, reflect, review

_____ reinforcement occurs when a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.

Continuous

On a ______ schedule, reinforcements are provided only after a certain number of correct responses have been made.

fixed ratio

A ____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is applied.

positive

The type of learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates others is called _____

observation learning.

The process by which we recall experiences, info, and skills is known as _____

memory

____ is the memory process that translates info into a dorm in which it can be stored.

encoding

Info stored as a ____ code is stored according to its meaning.

semantic

The memory process by which we maintain encoded info over a period of time is called ______.

storage

_____ memory is a type of sensory register that holds visual memories.

iconic

______ memories are recalled better when the mood in which they were originally encoded is recreated.

state- dependent

_____ is the memory process that allows people to locate stored into and return it to conscious though

retrieval

____ memories are examples of episodic memories that are recalled in great detail

flashbulb

Working memory is another name for ____ memory

short-term

____ memory consists of general knowledge.

semantic

The first item in a series is more easily remembered because of the ____ effect.

primacy effect

_____ is the process in which info in short-term memory is lost when new info appears.

interference

_____ amnesia is the loss of memories of events that occurred before that age of three.

infantile

Disturbing memories may be pushed out of the conscious mind in the process of ____;

repression

The method of ____ organizes items into familiar units so that they can be remembered more easily.

chunking

The APA generally requires that people in a study provide ______ after being give a general overview of the research and the choice whether or not to participate.

informed consent

Stress and health are thought to have a ______ since stress goes up as health deteriorates.

negative correlation

______ can slant the results of a survey because people who volunteer to participte in reasearch studies often differ from people who do not.

volunteer bias

In an experiment, _____ is the factor that varies when the independent variable is changed.

dependent variable

for the findings of a study to be confirmed, the study must be ____ to produce the same results as before.

replicated

The standard of ____ established by the APA limits the type of research that psychologists may conduct.

ethics

____________ enables researcher to study the behavior of people and animals in their everyday settings.

Natural observation

Need for achievement and salaries are thought to have a _____ since as one goes up, so does the other.

positive correlation

In a _______, neither the researchers nor the participants know who is receiving the treatment.

double blind study

Members of the ______ in an experiment are the ones who receive the treatment.

experimental group

People who participate in a ____ are selected by chance from a certain population to take part in a survey.

random sample

the _____ method takes much less time than the longitudinal method, but can accomplish many of the same objectives.

cross sectional

Since it is usually impossible to interview every member of a population that is being studied, pyschologists scientifically select a ____ of the population.

sample

_____ observation has the drawback that it cannot duplicate real-life conditions

lab

A ____ experiment uses both control and experimental groups.

controlled

The two kinds of photoreceptors are ______ and _____.

cons; rods

______ is the process by which we interpret sensory stimulation; ____ is the process of receiving sensory info.

perception; sensation

A sound's pitch depends on its

frequency of sound waves.

The _______, which has no photoreceptors, is the point at which the optic nerves leaves the eye.

blind spot

Perspective and texture gradients are example of ____ cues

monocular

The ______ is the spectrum of light bent into a circle.

color wheel

The loudness of a sound depends on the _____ of the sound waves.

height

A person who cannot perceive some colors is partially _______

color blind

Light is made up of ______ energy.

electromagnetic

Retinal disparity is an example of a _____ cue.

binocular.

We recognize that an object has only one shape-no matter what angle it is viewed from - because of ____.

shape constancy

Pressure, temperature, and pain are examples of ____ senses.

skin

The ______ of a color is its complementary color.

afterimage

Movies, which are a series of still picture, are perceived as moving images because of the perceptual rule of ____

stroboscopic motion

The monocular cue of ____parallax explains why someone in a moving vehicle sees nearby objects pass by quickly.

motion

Consciousness is considered a psychological _____ because we cannot see, touch or measure it directly.

construct

During a typical 8 hours of sleep, most people go through _____ sleep cycles.

4-5

Difficulty falling asleep is called___

insomnia

During _____, some people narrow their consciousness by focusing on a peaceful, repetitive pattern.

meditation

Ideas that a person is not aware of, but which can be recalled, are on the ____level.

preconcious

The four different kinds of brain-wave patterns are:

alpha, beta, delta, theta

Freud believed that dreams reflected our ___ wishes and urges.

innermost

_______ are similar to, but more severe than nightmares.

night terrors

After taking certain drugs for a while, a person shows signs of ___ when the body craves the drug just to feel normal.

addiction

A therapist may hypnotize a patient and offer a _____ to help the patient quit a habit such as smoking or overeating

posthypnotic suggestion

_____ are drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system.

depressants

Nicotine causes a person's heart rate to increase by causing the release of the hormone____.

adrenaline

_____ are drugs that speed up the activity of the nervous system.

stimulants

Nonsmokers are at risk of getting lung cancer or breathing problems when exposed to _____

secondhand smoke

Overdoses of crack and other forms of cocaine can be fatal because of the strain they place on the _____

heart

Psychological _____ explain and predict what governs behavior and mental processes.

theories

Clinical psychologists _____ prescribe medication to a client; but psychiatrists ___

cannot; can

____ psychologists typically treat people with adjustment problems, rather than those with serious disorders.

counseling

Research that has no immediate application is known as ______

basic research

____ and ____ psychologists offer suggestions on how to improve working conditions.

industrial; organization

The Greek philosopher _____ wrote Peri Psyches, one of the first books.

Aristotle

During the middle ages, most Europeans believed that psychological problems were caused by ____

possession of demons

Along with history, anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology, psychology is on of the _____

social science

The school of _____ was concerned with studying how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment.

functionalism

In the 1800s psychologists established _____ for the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.

psychological labs

B.F. Skinner's concept of _____ showed that an animal is more likely to repeat an action if rewarded for it.

reinforcement

_____ founded psychoanalysis.

Freud

_____ psychologists help prepare achievement tests, while _____ psychologists administer these tests.

education, school

the ___ perspective argues that people can learn by experience and by observing others.

learning

The cognitive perspective focuses on ___ processes to explain human behavior

mental

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