8th Grade Science Notes: Chemistry

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Overall Chemistry Vocabulary; Key Points

Element

simplest pure substance

Atoms

the basic building blocks of all matter.

Atoms (made of)

made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Protons

POSITIVELY charged and inside the nucleus

Neutrons

NEUTRAL particles inside the nucleus

Electrons

NEGATIVELY charged particles OUTSIDE the nucleus

Atomic Number

determines an elements identity and the number of protons and electrons in an atom.

Atomic Mass

protons + neutrons

A.P.E.

Atomic #= # of protons= # of electrons

M.A.N.

Mass-Atomic#=#of neutrons

Alkali Metals

Extremely reactive, containing one valence electron, and is never found in their pure form.

Alkaline-Earth Metals

Slightly less reactive than Alkali Metals, and have 2 valence electrons.

Transition Metals

Shiny, less reactive, and good conductors

Lanthanides and Actinides.

Transition metals that are reactive

Lanthanides

Shiny & reactive

Actinides

Radio active

Period

tells the number of electron shells

group

# of valence electrons

Halogens

very reactive non metals that are poor conductors and tend to go with Alkali metals

Noble Gases

non reactive non metals

Isotopes

Atoms of elements that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons inside the nucleus

Ions

Charged particles that form during chemical changes. They form when one or more valence electron is transferred.

Subscript

tiny numbers to the bottom right of an element's symbol

Coefficent

a number placed in front of a molecular formal to indicate how many molecules/atoms take part in the reaction.

Chemical reaction

Chemical changes

Chemical change

Tigers Pounce on colored Geckos

Law of Conservation of mass

in a chemical change, the mass of reactants at the start is equal to the mass of the products

reactant

any substance that is used up during a reaction

product

any substance that is produced during a reaction

Physical Properties

easily observed w/o tempering with the product

Chemical Properties

only observed during chemical reactions. ex) is it combustable?

Physical changes

occur when substances are changed to another phase, are separated or combined. No new substance is produced

Phase Changes

ex) Melting=solid>liquid

chemical changes

occur when a new chemical substance is produced after a reaction

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