3 Trapezius Proximal Attachments
External Occipital Protuberance of skull, Nuchal Ligament, Spinous Processes of C7 - C12
3 Trapezious Distal Attachments
Laterial third of clavicle (anterior), acromion, spine of the scapula
4 Actions of Trapezious
Elevates, depresses and retracts the scapula. Rotates the glenoid fossa superiorly.
Innervation of Trapezious
Motor: accessory nerve (CNXI)
Pain/Proprioception: C3, C4
4 Latissimus Dorsi Proximal Attachments
Spinous processes of 6 inferior thoracic vertabrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, 3 inferior ribs
1 Latissimus Dorsi Distal Attachments
floor of intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) of humorous
4 Latissimus Dorsi Actions
Extends, adducts and medially rotates humerous. Raises torso toward arms during climbing.
Latissimus Dorsi Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
1 Rhomboid Major Proximal Attachment
Spinous Processes of T2 - T5
1 Rhomboid Major Distal Attachment
Medial border of scupula running from the level of the spine down to the inferior angle
2 Rhomboid Minor Proximal Attachments
Nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7 and T1
1 Rhomboid Minor Distal Attachment
Medial edge of scapular spine
3 Rhomboid Maj/Min Actions
Elevate, rotate downward the scapula. Fix the scapula to the thoracic wall.
Rhomboid Major/Min Innervation
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C4, C5)
1 Levator Scapulae Proximal Attachment
Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of 4 superior cervical vertebrae
2 Levator Scapulae Distal Attachments
Medial border of scapula, superior part of scapular spine
2 Levator Scapulae Actions
Elevates scapula, tilts glenoid fossa inferiorly by rotating the scapula downward
Levator Scapulae Innervation
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5) and Cervical Spinal Nerves (C3, C4)
Extrinsic Back Muscles
Hypaxial. Innervated by the ventral ramus of the spinal nerves.
Intrinsic Back Muscles
Epaxial. Innervated by the dorsal ramus.