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APUSH history chapters 3-4 questions

characteristics of British colonies in 1700s

-shift in balance of power btwn colonies and England
-2.5 million by 1775
-high fertility rate
-virginia, massachusetts, pa, nc, and md...largest pops
major cities...philly, ny, boston, charleston

Population breakdown

English + Welsh= 66%

George Whitefield

English public speaker (orator) who traveled around colonies
appealed to the bible

MOST INFLUENTIAL
founded methodism in GA and SC

Discuss the "New Light"

supported the awakening for revitalizing American religion and used emotionalism to move followers
congregationalists and Presbyterians split over it
baptists --attracted believers who longed for emotion in religion

Discuss the "Old Light"

orthodox and liberal clergymen deeply skeptical of emotionalism and theatrics of the revivalists
-emotionalism threatened their usefulness and authority

Discuss the results of the Great Awakening

split denominations = competitiveness of American churches
by 19th century- baptist and methodist = largest
many new religious ppl
undermined old clergy
encouraged missionary work
new light colleges: princeton, dartmouth, brown, rutgers
anti intellectualism

Discuss the democratic component of the Great Awakening

1/ People had more choice of religion
2/ resistance to established authority

Discuss education in New England

1.New England = most dedicated to education
2.primary and secondary schools established early
3. literacy much higher in New England than other areas

Discuss education in the middle colonies

1. Had primary and secondary education
2. some schools tax-supported and others private
3. spread out pop. made creation of good schools difficult
4. many wealthy ppl sent sons to college in England

Discuss education in the Southern colonies

1. Educational opportunities limited for most ppl except rich
2. wealthy planters hired tutors
3. population dispersed..in effective educational system for common folk

Discuss higher education in the colonies

1. primary focus = training new clergy (not academics)
2. higher education improved U PENN
-more modern..experimentation, reason, modern lang.
3. ivy league schools

Phillis Wheatly

1. slave taught by her master's mistress to read and write
2. first important african american writer
3. abolonists use her to show blacks are not inferior

Discuss Benjamin Franklin's achievements in the colonies

Poor Richard's Almanack
-writings of many contemporary thinkers
-emphasized thrift, industry, morality, and common sense
-more widely read than any book, in europe also

-first rank scientist
-experiments with electricity
-biofocal specs
-library

Discuss the Zenger case

Peter John Zenger's newspaper critized corrupt royal governor
-he was charged with seditious libel and brought to trial
-jury ruled in his favor
-newspaper editors got some freedom

Royal Colonies

8 colonies had royal governors appointed by the crown

Proprietary Colonies

3 colonies led by proprietors who chose governors
(MD, PA,DE)

Charter Colonies

connecticut and rhode island elected own governors under self-governing charters

What was the common legislature of the colonies?

(Bicameral)
1. upperhouse or council - appointed by crown or proprietor
2. lower house or assembly- elected by property owners
-voted for taxes to pay expenses

Age of the enlightenment (classical liberalism)

1. liberty-individual human rights
a. freedom of religion
b. freedom of speech and press
c. fair and equal treatment before law
2. Equality- all citizens should have equal rights and civil liberties. nobility did not have special rights
3. human dignity and happiness
4. science, progress, rationality
5. representative gov.

John Locke

(During the enlightenment)
natural rights- life, liberty, property
natural rights to rebellion

Baron de Montesquieu

(During the enlightenment)
the spirit of laws--his book
1. checks and balances, seperation of powers among 3 branches
political power needs to be divided `

Adam Smith

(During the enlightenment)
Wealth of Nations!
a. most significant work on capitalism ever written..founded modern economics
b. idea of free economy...free private enterprise

Deism

religious or philosophical branch of Enlightenment
believed God created the universe and then stepped back; universe ran like a clock-- the"Ghost in the machine"
--largely reject traditional Christianity and divinity of Jesus
--influenced Jefferson, Franklin, Washington, & Paine

Paxton Boys

Western Pennsylvanians (scots irish) rebelled against gov b.c they believed it wasn't doing enough to protect them against amerindian attacks

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