any organization set up to make and enforce rules for a nation
Another name for the national government; the highest level of the three levels of government
There are three levels of government. What is the middle level?
local (county, city)
There are three levels of government. What is the closest level to the people?
Form of government in which power is passed down from one generation to the next
Government takeover, through coupe, war, overthrow of a government.
May happen peacefully if the previous government or people agree
Rulers answer only to themselves, not to the people.
Rulers attempt to control all aspects of the people's lives, including the religious, cultural, political, and personal aspects of their lives.
Small group of leaders with absolute power over a nation
Form of government in which the rulers are religious leaders who claim to rule on behalf of God or the gods worshipped in their country. (Iran)
From ancient Greek, meaning "rule of the people." The people rule directly or elect their officials to act on their behalf.
All of the voters in a community meet in one place to make laws and decide what actions to take.
The people elect officials, and the people consent to be ruled by their elected leaders.
Purpose of the government
provide rules, provide services, putting ideals into practice, helping people cooperate
police, libraries, public schools, mililtary
some of the services provided by the government
From the consent of the governed
Where does government power come from?
To protect human rights, the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings.
What is the purpose of government?
This is false about the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is a law
This is true about the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is not a law
liberty and equality
What are the American ideals?
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Words in the Declaration of Independence that communicates Amiercan ideals of liberty and equality.
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
July 4, 1776
When was the Declaration of Independence first signed?
we do not want a tyrannical central government
Why did the states want a confederation?
a loose association (rather than a firm union) of states; a "firm league of friendship"
What is a confederation?
we feared a strong central government might use its power to limit the freedom of the separate states.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had more sovereignty, or absolute power, while the national government was limited. WHY?
Under the Articles of Confederation, who had the most power?
Under the Articles, how many votes did each state have?
No president, no courts, couldn't enforce laws, couldn't settle state disputes, no stable national currency, no power to solve national problems, couldn't tax, 9/13 to make laws or act, 13/13 to change the Articles
What were some weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
national government needed more power to operate effectively; Americans needed a national identity
What Changes did US Government need under the Articles of Confederation?
1787 meeting called to revise the Articles of Confederation
President of the Constitutional Convention
Oldest delegate at the Constitutional Convention
Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry
Did not attend the Constitutional Convention
James Madison, Alexander Hamiltonm Roger Sherman
Famous delegates at the Constitutional Convention
Secretary of the Constitutional Convention
Wrote the Declaration of Independence but did not attend the Constitutional Convention because he was now the ambassador to France
Document the nobles of England forced King John to sign; king must follow laws and respect rights of Parliament, free people entitled to trial by jury of peers and judged by English law.
Leaders must follow the law, leaders must respect the law-making body and advisors, the accused is entitled to know the charge and to defend himself in a trial by a jury of peers, as judged by the law.
What provisions of British law did the Magna Carta contribute to the US Constitution?
Who signed the Magna Carta?
trial by jury
accused entitled to know the charge and defend against it before a group of peers
Which state did not send a representative to the Constitutional Convention?
Even though it was the smallest state, it could block all efforts to change the A of C by not attending (no 13/13 vote).
Why didn't this state send a representative to revise (change, update) the Articles of Confederation?
The English Bill of Rights
Document signed by William and Mary of the Netherlands to protect the rights of English citizens before becoming king and queen of England, replacing King James
The rights of citizens must be protected, the right to petition (request) the government to improve or change laws, the right to a fair punishment if found guilty of a crime.
What provisions of the British law did the English Bill of Rights contribute to the US Constitution?
A law-making body of two houses with different membership to represent the people; House of Lords (appointed by king) and House of Commons (elected by people); each house checks and improves the work of the other house; Prime minister, chosen from the majority political party in Commons, who performs administration of the government.
Bicameral law-making body (of two houses) with different membership to represent the people, upper and lower house, each house checks and improves the work of the other house, idea of a leader for administration of the government (Prime minister chosen from the majority),
What provisions of the British law did parliamentary government contribute to the US Constitution?
law-making body of England
two houses or parts (in law-making body of government); both most agree to pass laws
Delegates could speak freely with fear of being pressures by outsiders. Avoid taking solid public stands that would make it difficult to change a position or compromise
What are two reasons that the meetings of the Constitutional Convention were held in secret?
Father of the Constitution
kept a journal of all proceedings, present at all debates, believed in religious freedom, researched government and Enlightenment thought, major framer (writer and organizer) of the Constitution
Why this person is called the "Father of the Constitution"
national government possesses all legal power, and local and state governments have no independent authority.
system of government that divides powers between the national government, which governs the whole country, and state governments, which govern each state, keeping the powers needed to govern their own affairs.
why the US needed Federalism
To preserve the sovereignty of states over state matters, yet have a central government strong enough to protect the nation and its citizens and solve disputes.
An agreement in which each side gives up part of its demands in order to reach a solution to a problem.
upper house; based on equal representation, 2/state
House of Representatives
lower house; based on population, varies with state size
Three fifths of enslaved people would be counted in the population for the Representative count in the House of representatives.
Slave Trade Compromise
Slave trade from Africa would continue for 20 years and then be subject to control by Congress. Resulted increase in slave trade for the next 20 years.
what Great Compromise was about
The composition of the law-making portion of the government (How many from each state).
bicameral Congress-both must agree; House of Representatives membership based on state population and Senate membership equally based on two per state.
September 17, 1787
When was the Constitution signed?
What was approval of the Constitution called?
Approval by 9 of the 13 states
What did it take to ratify the Constitution?
Supported the ratification of the Constitution
Written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison to help increase support for the Constitution
Opposed ratification of the Constitution
why the anti-Federalists opposed ratification of the Constitution
feared that a constitution that established such a strong national government defeated the purpose of the Revolutionary War. Believed the states' power and the people's freedom would be in danger.
The addition of a Bill of Rights to protect the rights of the people and the states.
Compromise that brought the Federalists and anti-Federalists together
Articles of Confederation
States had most of the power and the central government was weak under the ____________________.
The Articles of Confederation did not have a ________________ to admnister or enforce laws.
national court system
The Articles of Confederation did not have a ________________ but did establish temporary courts to hear piracy cases.
unicameral-one vote per state
The Legistrative branch was _________under the Articles of Confederation.
one vote per state
did not have power
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress ___________to collect taxes, regulate trade, coin money or establish armed forces.
9 of 13 states
Under the Articles of Confederation, approval by ____________ was required to pass laws.
Under the ________________ central government is strong. States have many powers but accept the ___________ as supreme law.
Under the Constitution, the ______________administers and enforces federal laws.
Under the Constitution, the ______________can collect taxes, regulate interstate and foreign trade and coin money.
Under the Constitution, the National Court System is headed by the ______________.