MT Ch 8 Blood and Lymph

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plasma

liquid portion of the blood and lymph containing water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, vitamins, and cellular components (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets)

serum

liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process

erythrocyte

red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within the bloodstream

neutrophil

a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis)

eosinophil

a granular leukocyte, name for the rose color stain of its granules, that increases with allergy and some infections

lymphocyte

a agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity- there are four categories of lymphocytes: t cells (thymus dependent), b cells (bone marrow derived), nk cells, k-type cells

platelets

thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting

lymph

fluid originating in the organs and tissues of the body

lymph nodes

many small oval structures that filter the lymph received from the lymph vessels- major locations include the cervical region, axillary region, and inguinal region

antigen

a substance that, when introduced to the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it

antibody

a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body

immunity

process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen

microcytosis

the presence of small red blood cells

macrocytosis

the presence of large red blood cells

anisocytosis

the presence of red blood cells of unequal size

poikilocytosis

the presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells

reticulocytosis

an increase of immature erythrocytes in the blood

erythropenia

an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells

lymphocytopenia

an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes

neutropenia

a decrease in the number of neutrophils

pancytopenia

an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood

hemolysis

breakdown of the red blood cell membrane

immunocompromised

impaired immunological defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or therapy with immunosuppressive agents

immunosuppression

impaired ability to provide an immune reponse

lymphadenopathy

the presence of enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes

splenomegaly

enlargement of spleen

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, an neurological diseases to develop; it is transmitted sexually or through exposure to contaminated blood

anemia

a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of the red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues

Rh factor

the presence or lack or antigens on the surface of the red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia

hemophilia

a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood

leukemia

a chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow, classified according to the types of white cells affected

lymphoma

any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease

metastasis

the process by which caner cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs

mononucleosis

a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore through (pharyngitis)

thrombocytopenia

a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process

blood chemistry panel

specialized batteries fo automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions

blood culture

a test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed and the organisms that grow in the culture identified

complete blood count (CBC)

the most common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes; the following is a listing of the component tests included in a CBC

white blood cell count (WBC)

a count of the number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods

hemoglobin (Hgb)

a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin

hematocrit (HCT)

a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood

red blood count (RBC)

a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods

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