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Pre-test Chapters 1-3

*Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
a.the science of behavior
b. the science of mental processes
c.the science of behavior and mental processes
d. the science of human behavior and mental processes

c. the science of behavior and mental processes

*In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to __________ .
a.internal, covert processes
b. outward behavior
c.overt actions and reactions
d. only animal behavior

a. internal, covert processes

*The goals of psychology are to _____.
a.explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
c.improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death
d. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior

d. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior

*A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This
psychologist is most interested in the goal of ______________.
a.description
b. understanding
c.prediction
d. control

b. understanding

A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework,
squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal
of psychology?
a.describing behavior
b. explaining behavior
c.predicting behavior
d. controlling behavior

a. describing behavior

The question "Why is it happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
a.description
b. understanding
c.prediction
d. control

b. understanding

*Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that
she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
a.describing behavior
b. explaining behavior
c.predicting behavior
d. controlling behavior

c. predicting behavior

The question "How can it be changed?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
a.description
b. explanation
c.prediction
d. control

d. control

Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"?
a.Gestaltist
b. behaviorist
c.structuralist
d. functionalist

a. Gestaltist

*The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what early field of psychology?
a.structuralism
b. functionalism
c.psychoanalysis
d. behaviorism

c. psychoanalysis

The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50."
The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just
before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?
a."Who is B. F. Skinner?"
b. "Who are the humanists?"
c."Who is Sigmund Freud?"
d. "Who are the behaviorists?"

c. "Who is Sigmund Freud?"

Freud stressed the importance of _____________.
a.early childhood experiences
b. adolescence
c.early adulthood
d. middle adulthood

a. early childhood experiences

What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?
a."Focus on observable behavior."
b. "Life is an effort to overcome inferiority."
c."We cannot know others until we know ourselves."
d. "Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes."

a. "Focus on observable behavior."

*Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________.
a.learned; inherited
b. repressed conflicts; learned
c.sexual; unconscious
d. conditioned; unconditioned

b. repressed conflicts; learned

You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, human nature, and
self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?
a.behaviorism
b. humanism
c.functionalism
d. psychodynamics

b. humanism

*Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives?
a.behaviorism
b. cognitive perspective
c.functionalism
d. humanism

d. humanism

Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
a.biopsychological
b. learning
c.cognitive
d. sociocultural

a. biopsychological

*If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in
the __________ perspective.
a.behavioral
b. sociocultural
c.psychodynamic
d. cognitive

b. sociocultural

Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a(n) ___________________ .
a.behavioral psychologist
b. cognitive psychologist
c.evolutionary psychologist
d. biopsychological psychologist

c. evolutionary psychologist

On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a _______.
a.podiatrist
b. psychiatrist
c.clinical psychologist
d. counseling psychologist

b. psychiatrist

The first step in any scientific investigation is ________.
a.forming the hypothesis
b. perceiving the question
c.coming to a conclusion
d. developing an argument

b. perceiving the question

*After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea?
a.hypothesis
b. dependent variable
c.extraneous variable
d. experimental estimate

a. hypothesis

What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?
a.to comply with legal requirements
b. to identify all the extraneous variables
c.to allow researchers to replicate experiments
d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them

c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments

*Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not.
Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________.
a.educational knowledge
b. replication
c.finding a better way to support the hypothesis
d. publication

b. replication

Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation?
a.It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid.
b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context.
c.It is basically the same process as objective introspection.
d. It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings.

b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context.

Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?
a.case study
b. experiment
c.correlational studies
d. naturalistic observation

d. naturalistic observation

Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonald's are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic observation of people who eat at McDonald's. What should most concern us about Sandi's observations?
a.the observer effect
b. the bystander effect
c.observer bias
d. subject bias

c. observer bias

*You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods
often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?
a.correlation
b. case study
c.experiment
d. surveys

b. case study

A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ____________.
a.a representative sample
b. a case study
c.a single-blind study
d. a naturalistic observation

b. a case study

A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun
control. Which research technique is being used?
a.survey
b. experiment
c.case study
d. naturalistic observation

a. survey

*A group of randomly selected subjects for study that matches the population on important
characteristics such as age and sex is called ___________.
a.volunteer bias
b. a representative sample
c.the experimental group
d. the control group

b. a representative sample

*Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?
a.What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability?
b. Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations?
c.Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
d. What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade point average?

c. Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?

A(n) __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
a.independent variable
b. dependent variable
c.experimental effect
d. correlation

d. correlation

*The word correlation is often used as a synonym for _____________.
a.validity
b. reliability
c.variable
d. relationship

d. relationship

All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation.
a.height and weight
b. men's educational level and their income
c.alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test
d. school grades and IQ scores

c. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test

An operational definition is ______________.
a.a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested
b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships
c.the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure
d. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation

c. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers
want to measure

A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n) _____________.
a.coefficient of correlation
b. dependent variable
c.control condition
d. independent variable

d. independent variable

*Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?
a.In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition.
b. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition.
c.Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over.
d. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates.

a. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition.

Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?
a.You sleep because you are tired.
b. You throw up after eating bad meat.
c.You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.
d. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.

d. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.

__________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group.
a.The double-blind study
b. Field research
c.The single-blind study
d. Correlational research

c. The single-blind study

The function of the _________________ is to carry information to and from all parts of the body.
a.soma
b. synapse
c.nervous system
d. endorphins

c. nervous system

The branch of life sciences which involves the structure and function of the brain and nervous
system, while also focusing on the relationship between learning and behavior, is called ________.
a.neuroscience
b. bioscience
c.brain scientology
d. neurostemology

a. neuroscience

*What term is used to describe a specialized cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system?
a.neuron
b. glial cell
c.myelin sheath
d. dendritic spine

a. neuron

The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called ______.
a.axons
b. nerve bundles
c.dendrites
d. synapses

c. dendrites

The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning is the
____.
a.axon
b. cell membrane
c.dendrite
d. soma

d. soma

Which part of a neuron is attached to the soma and carries messages out to other cells?
a.soma
b. axon
c.dendrite
d. cell membrane

b. axon

_________ receive messages from other neurons and _________send messages to other neurons.
a.Axons; dendrites
b. Axon; soma
c.Soma; glial cells
d. Dendrites; axons

d. Dendrites; axons

*Your teacher asks you to describe the sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during
neural conduction. Which of the following sequences will you offer?
a.dendrites, axon, soma, synaptic knob
b. terminal buttons, axon, soma, dendrites
c.axon, soma, dendrites, synaptic knob
d. dendrites, soma, axon, synaptic knob

d. dendrites, soma, axon, synaptic knob

A cell in the human nervous system whose primary function is to provide insulation and structure for neurons on which they may develop and work is called a(n) _________.
a.epidermal cell
b. adipose cell
c.glial cell
d. myelin cell

c. glial cell

*What is the function of myelin?
a.to serve as a structure for neurons
b. to monitor neural activity
c.to speed up the neural impulse
d. to produce neurotransmitters

c. to speed up the neural impulse

One purpose of the _______________ is to speed up the neural message traveling down the axon.
a.receptor site
b. axon terminal
c.myelin
d. synaptic vesicle

c. myelin

*When a cell is "at rest," it is in a state called the ________.
a.stopping point
b. obcipitation junction
c.resting potential
d. action potential

c. resting potential

What do we call the state of a neuron when it is not firing a neural impulse?
a.action potential
b. resting potential
c.myelination signal
d. transmission impulse

b. resting potential

When the electric potential in a cell is in action versus a resting state, this electrical charge reversal is known as the _____________.
a.resting potential
b. excitation reaction
c.action potential
d. permeable reaction

c. action potential

When a neuron fires, it fires in a(n) ________ fashion as there is no such thing as "partial" firing.
a.all-or-none
b. rapid fire
c.accidental patterned
d. quick successioned

a. all-or-none

The branches at the end of the axon are called ________.
a.axon terminals
b. synaptic vesicles
c.synapses
d. receptor sites

a. axon terminals

What is the term used to describe the rounded areas on the ends of the axon terminals?
a.synaptic vesicles
b. axons
c.dendrites
d. synaptic knobs

d. synaptic knobs

The saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals are called________.
a.axon terminals
b. synapses
c.synaptic vesicles
d. receptor sites

c. synaptic vesicles

A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell is
called a__________.
a.glial cell
b. neurotransmitter
c.precursor cell
d. synapse

b. neurotransmitter

The fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell is called the ___________.
a.receptor site
b. synapse
c.synaptic knob
d. axon terminal

b. synapse

______neurotransmitters make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas _______ neurotransmitters make it less likely that a neuron will send its message.
a.Excitatory; inhibitory
b. Inhibitory; excitatory
c.Augmentation; depletion
d. Depletion; augmentation

a. Excitatory; inhibitory

*Reuptake is________.
a.a chemical that is released into the synaptic gap
b. a protein molecule on the dendrite or cell body of a neuron that will interact only with specific
neurotransmitters
c.a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles
d. a chemical that plays a role in learning and attention

c. a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles

The brain is divided into several different structures on the bottom part of the brain referred to as the "hindbrain." Which of the parts of the brain listed below is NOT located in the hindbrain?
a.medulla
b. pons
c.cerebellum
d. thalamus

d. thalamus

Which of the following is responsible for the ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of information
in one's surroundings and become alert to changes?
a.reticular formation
b. pons
c.medulla
d. cerebellum

a. reticular formation

*What is the main function of the reticular formation?
a.to control thinking
b. to regulate emotions
c.to control levels of alertness
d. to coordinate involuntary rapid fine-motor movements.

c. to control levels of alertness

The cerebellum ______.
a.controls blood pressure
b. is involved in emotional behavior
c.coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement
d. relays messages from the sensory receptors

c. coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement

Which of the following is a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in
learning, emotion, memory, and motivation?
a.limbic system
b. cerebellum
c.cerebral cortex
d. cerebrum

a. limbic system

*What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
a.hypothalamus
b. thalamus
c.cerebellum
d. pituitary gland

b. thalamus

Jerry loves the smell of the grass after it rains. This is a result of his ____________ which have
received signals from neurons in his sinus cavity.
a.thalamus
b. olfactory bulbs
c.opticfactory bulbs
d. hippocampus

b. olfactory bulbs

Signals from the neurons of which sense are NOT sent to the cortex by the thalamus?
a.hearing
b. smell
c.taste
d. vision

b. smell

Which part of the brain is very small but extremely powerful and controls the pituitary gland?
a.hippocampus
b. thalamus
c.hypothalamus
d. amygdala

c. hypothalamus

If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for
damage to the ___________ area of the brain.
a.hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c.fornix
d. amygdala

a. hippocampus

The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the ______.
a.cortex
b. cerebrum
c.corpus callosum
d. cerebellum

c. corpus callosum

Which of the following regions contains the primary visual cortex?
a.occipital lobe
b. parietal lobe
c.temporal lobe
d. frontal lobe

a. occipital lobe

The section of the brain responsible for interpreting the visual information in the primary visual cortex
is called the __________.
a.visual association cortex
b. somatosensory cortex
c.temporal lobe
d. frontal lobe

a. visual association cortex

*Which of the following regions contains the somatosensory cortex?
a.occipital lobe
b. parietal lobe
c.temporal lobe
d. frontal lobe

b. parietal lobe

The part of the brain located just behind the temples, containing neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, is called the ___________.
a.temporal lobes
b. parietal lobes
c.frontal lobes
d. occipital lobes

a. temporal lobes

Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality?
a.temporal lobes
b. parietal lobes
c.frontal lobes
d. occipital lobes

c. frontal lobes

Researcher Roger Sperry won a nobel prize for his research on Epilepsy. Sperry cut through the ________ which joins the two hemispheres of the brain.
a.medulla
b. pons
c.pituitary gland
d. corpus callosum

d. corpus callosum

Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands?
a.thyroid
b. adrenal
c.thymus
d. pituitary

d. pituitary

*______ are the raw data of experience, based on the activation of certain receptors located in the
various sensory organs.
a.Perceptions
b. Emotions
c.Cognitions
d. Sensations

d. Sensations

Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called ______.
a.ganglion cells
b. bipolar cells
c.ossicles
d. sensory receptors

d. sensory receptors

The lowest intensity of a particular stimulus that enables the average person to detect that stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ___________.
a.absolute threshold
b. difference threshold
c.just noticeable difference
d. psychophysical threshold

a. absolute threshold

The average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from ______ on a dark, clear night.
a.1 mile
b. 15 miles
c.7.5 miles
d. 30 miles

d. 30 miles

When you first put your hat on, you can feel it quite easily, but after a while, you forget that you are
wearing a hat at all—the sensation is gone. What happens?
a.sensory fatigue
b. subliminal perception
c.habituation
d. perceptual defense

c. habituation

In the process known as_____________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to repeated
presentations of the same stimulus.
a.sensation
b. sensory fatigue
c.sensory adaptation
d. discrimination

c. sensory adaptation

The shortest wavelengths that we can see are experienced as ______ colors.
a.red
b. blue
c.green
d. yellow

b. blue

The longest wavelengths we can see are experienced as ______ colors.
a.red
b. blue-violet
c.green
d. yellow

a. red

Erin has learned to create a "truly red" light by focusing on only one wavelength of the visible
spectrum. She is most likely to be concerned with which property of light?
a.intensity
b. decibels
c.accommodation
d. saturation

d. saturation

Which component of the eye contains the visual receptors?
a.sclera
b. retina
c.cornea
d. posterior chamber

b. retina

Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are ______.
a.bipolar cells
b. ganglion cells
c.rods
d. cones

d. cones

Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision are ______.
a.bipolar cells
b. ganglion cells
c.rods
d. cones

c. rods

The idea that the eye contains separate receptors for red, green, and blue is known as the _____
theory.
a.opponent-process
b. additive color mixing
c.trichromatic
d. reductive color mixing

c. trichromatic

Amy's school records describe her as a monochromat. What can we assume about Amy's
perceptual abilities?
a.She does not see color.
b. She sees only two colors.
c.She sees colors one at a time.
d. She cannot remember words used to designate colors.

a. She does not see color.

Sound waves are simply ________.
a.the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us
b. the impact of acoustrons in the air
c.a form of electronic radiation
d. none of these

a. the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us

Which of the following properties of sound is the most similar to the brightness of light?
a.pitch
b. volume
c.purity
d. timbre

b. volume

What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?
a.tiny bones located in the middle ear
b. types of cones on the retina
c.types of sound that most people can detect
d. words often used by audiologists in testing for hearing difficulties

a. tiny bones located in the middle ear

Fluid located in the cochlea is set in motion and causes vibration in the _________.
a.ossicles
b. bipolar cells
c.basilar membrane
d. semicircular canals

c. basilar membrane

Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue. "Girl," she says,"you sure have a lot of _________."
a.olfactory receptors
b. taste buds
c.papillae
d. taste receptors

c. papillae

Approximately how many taste receptors are located on each taste bud?
a.2
b. 20
c.50
d. 500

b. 20

What is the approximate life expectancy of individual taste receptor cells?
a.1-2 days
b. 10-14 days
c.1-2 months
d. 1 year

b. 10-14 days

What are the five primary tastes?
a.hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami
b. salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart
c.bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
d. peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic

c. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami

Each olfactory receptor cell has a half dozen to a dozen little hairs that project out. These are called
________.
a.olfactory cones
b. olfactory rods
c.olfactory buds
d. cilia

d. cilia

The sense of smell is also known as _______.
a.olfaction
b. the salivary sense
c.chemical infarctation
d. gustation

a. olfaction

An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to ________.
a.olfactory bulb
b. thalamus
c.amygdala
d. pons

a. olfactory bulb

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