people that throughout history (especially the colonial period) contracted themselves for work (3-7 years) in exchange for food, living, and transportation, and other necessities. It was primarily used by young people to gain transportation from the crowded, poverty filled Europe to the New World, a land of new opportunity and wealth.
Trade and Navigation Acts
a series of acts and laws that were implemented by England in 1651, meant to restrict foreign trade in its colonies (for the purpose of giving more advantage to England as well as cutting off rivals). The Acts were mostly obeyed except the Molasses Act of 1733 which caused smuggling, but the laws still made the colonies unhappy, eventually leading to the American Revolution.
the first governing document of the Plymouth Colony and one of the first ones in the United States. Written by the Pilgrims was signed on November 11, 1620.
An English theologian who was a supporter of religious freedom and the separation of church from state. In 1636, he founded the Providence Plantation (the colony in Rhode Island). Also founded the First Baptist church in America.
Great Puritan Migration
a movement spanning from 1620 to 1640 and consisted of believers seeking religious freedom escaping the persecution in England by coming to the New World. Primarily consisted of Puritans coming to the Massachusetts Bay colony to practice their religion freely.
New England Confederation
also known as the United Colonies of New England was military alliance formed between the colonies of New England formed in 1643. Its primary purpose was to united the Puritan colonies against Native Americans. The alliance fell apart approximately a year later when
Freedom of consciences
otherwise known as Freedom of thought is one of basic freedoms, rooted in the Puritan's quest to practice religious freedom. It is the freedom to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of other's viewpoints.
a preacher and theologian that is considered one of the greatest intellectuals of the Americas. He played an essential role in shaping the Puritan theology and the First Great Awakening. He was also a missionary to the Native Americans, inspiring many missionaries.
a form of partial church membership created in 1662 by New England. It was an attempt to get closer to the Anglican Church by the Puritan colonies, but not completely come back to it. The Puritan preachers believed that it would establish more order in the colonies' church and its drifting ideology.
Salem Witch Trial
a witch-hunt that occurred for approximately a year between 1692 and 1693. It consisted of series trials in colonial Massachusetts. People were accused of practicing witchcraft by their neighbors, and the Puritan courts (the Puritan ideology completely excludes witchcraft and was fearful of it) sent hundreds of people to jail, and hung many also. The evidence was often lacking and absurd. And people took advantage of that to get rid of their enemies. Eventually it ended and the whole Puritan judicial system changed and the trials became a legacy.
City on a hill
a phrase in the sermon made by the Puritan pastor John Winthrop in 1630 called A Model of Christian Charity. The phrase made it into the American lexicon and represented the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The phrase comes from the parable of Salt and Light made by Jesus in Matthew 5:14.
English entrepreneur and philosopher that is recognized for founding the Province of Pennsylvania (the North American colony). Early supporter of democracy and religious freedom. Urged for the unification of all English colonies.
colonies where one or more individuals, usually land owners, remained subject to sanctions by their parent state. Represented the feudal system, but soon were abandoned as the colonies established their own administration.
colonies ruled by a governor appointed by the monarch. A type of colonial government in the British Empire. The Colony of Virginia is an obvious example of that after the English monarchy took it from the Virginia Company.
a type of colony where the King granted the colony's government the right to establish the rules by which the colony was to be governed. The colonies of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay were charter colonies.
Peter Zenger trial
a trial that occurred in 1735 which resulted in the growing freedom of press and was one the most controversial trials of the colonial period. Peter Zenger was a German immigrant and journalist who was put on trial after publishing material unfavorable to the governor. The verdict after much divide ended up being as "not guilty."
King Philip's War
also known as Metacom's War (or Rebellion) which was an armed conflict between English Colonists in Southern New England with the Native Americans. Metacomet was the leader of the Native Americans during the conflict, but some Native Americans were on the side of the English. Eventually Metacomet was hunted down and killed by the Puritan Major Benjamin Church and his allies. This was the biggest conflict in the area in the 17th century, destroying nearly half the region's towns and much of its population. The war, although bloody and costly, is recognized as the beginning of the development of American identity.
an English Anglican priest that helped spread the Great Awakening in Great Britain and the British North American colonies. One of the founders of Methodism. A popular public figure and priest in the 13 colonies.
a period of religious revival in America, occurring in several waves between the 18th and 20th centuries. This usually sparked a rise in pastors and ministers and an increase in religion and the profound sense of conviction and redemption in the population.
perhaps one the best known philosophers best known for writing a political book by the name of Leviathan which established the foundation for the Western Political Philosophy. Developed the liberal thought that concentrated on the right of the individual and the natural equality of all men.
an economic theory which states that the government control of foreign trade is important for ensuring the prosperity and security of the state. It also tied in the ideology that the colonies produced resources for the well-being of their mother country. This ideology allowed for the government of European nations to control trade, exports and imports, as well as manipulating the trade in the direction that would benefit the nation (and usually not the colonies) the most.
an uprising led by Nathaniel Bacon in 1676 in the colony of Virginia. The uprising consisted of about a thousand people as they rose against the Governor William Berkeley due to his policies to Native Americans. It was the first rebellion in the North American colonies, but eventually it fell apart after Bacon died due to dysentery.
one of the oldest and most prestigious colleges in North America dating back to 1639. Named in the name of John Harvard, a minister. Located in Massachusetts. Now named Harvard University..
one of the parts of the Triangular Trade, the path that led from Africa to the New World along which millions of blacks were transported to become slaves. The slaves were sold in the New World for raw material. This went on for about 200 years.
an African American female poet who became famous by being the first African-American woman whose work was published. She was a slave in Boston in the Wheatley family. She published her work Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral in 1773, bringing her fame with even George Washington praising her work. She was freed soon after and married, but died in poverty when her husband was imprisoned in 1784.
a religious group of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th century that was persecuted and eventually came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the New World in large amounts. Their religion differs from the traditional Anglican Church and is most usually very strict, simple and "pure." They settled New England and formed their own democratic society, but still attempted to keep close ties with the Anglican Church in England.
separatists from the Anglican Church that came to America on the Mayflower and settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They were refugees from religious persecution and settled their own colony, which allowed the practice of religious freedom. Known for relatively good relations with the Native Americans, from which the national celebration of Thanksgiving eventually formed.
House of Burgesses
the first elective assembly of representatives in colonial North America. Established by the Virginia Company, the representative body met for the first time in Jamestown, Virginia on July 30th, 1619. Was created in an effort to encourage English craftsmen to settle in North America but soon became a place where regions voiced opinions and eventually disagreement with the English monarchy. In the modern day, the House of Burgesses still exists and goes by the name of The General Assembly.
a Puritan living in the Massachusetts Bay colony in the 17th century. She was the leader of a dissident religious discussion group, holding Bible meetings for both men and women. Soon she began to develop her own theological interpretations, which was disapproved by the colony leadership and she was banished. She is a key figure in the development of religious freedom in the United States.
leader of the settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. Elected to be governor 30 times after the death of John Carver. Known to be the first civil authority to establish the holiday which is known as Thankgiving in the modern American culture.
French & Indian War
a war lasting from 1754 to 1763 between Great Britain and France and their Native American allies (mostly on the French side) in the North American continent. It changed the way warfare was fought in North America (thanks to the young George Washington who was only beginning to prove himself at the time). The war ended with the British victory and the gaining of territories such as; Florida, area east of the Mississippi River and much of the Northern United States and East Canada. France essentially lost its presence and power in the North American continent.
an English philosopher and physician during the 17th century, known as the Father of Liberalism and is considered one of the greatest Enlightenment thinkers. Wrote Two Treatises of Government and supported the idea of the social contract. His writings influenced the American Declaration of Independence, specifically the commonly known phrase that every human has the right to "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
a confederation of six Indian tribes in New York State in the 17th and 18th centuries which played a strategic part in the French and Indian War. Recognized by the English in 1722. They were most organized and structured Native American tribe union to the day. Fought the French and their allies several times, successful in taking new territory.
a system of legal grants of land being given to settlers. It was given in an attempt to populate the colonies and was given to anyone who was willing to pay for the transportation of a laborer or indentured servant. This was practiced in Virginia, Maryland, Georgia, North Caroline, and South Carolina.
Salutary neglect -
an unofficial policy held by the England for some time which avoided strictly enforcing laws in the North American colonies. Using reverse psychology, salutary neglect was meant to keep the colonies obedient, but it eventually led to the American Revolution for the published laws seemed very strict and unfair at times, and when the rebels arose, there was no imperial power to take control.
purposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 in was the first attempt to unify the colonies into one union under one government "as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes" during the French and Indian War. It was rejected by the British.
a British politician and general best known for founding the colony of Georgia in 1732. In this colony he hoped to settle those that are poor in Britain, especially those in debtor's prisons, which he eventually succeeded at.
an economic system in which the prices of goods on the market were determined by the free price system. It can range anywhere from the hypothetical laissez-faire economic system to semi-controlled system. In the real world, market economies do not exist in its pure form and some sort of government planning and regulation is always present.
a name for a family in the colonial times. This name came from the fact that England has a constitutional monarchy and the monarch was in control of colonies in countries around the world otherwise known as Commonwealth Countries.
a German priest and theologist who initiated the Protestant Reformation and responsible for creation of Lutheranism. He posted the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany stating all the things that were wrong with the Catholic Church. He gained many followers and was able to separate the Protestant Church from the Catholic.
a movement led by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other theologians as they developed their own ideas and divided from the corrupt Catholic Church, which gained a lot of followers as it established a new order in Europe as the Catholic Church lost its power. Began in 1517 with the posting of Martin Luther's 95 Theses and ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 which ended almost a century of European religious warfare between churches and nations.
a French theologian most commonly known for the formation of Calvinism and the ideology of predestination. Broke from the Catholic Church in 1530.
a belief in the church of Calvinism that one's fate and afterlife is determined ahead of time when one is born, and one's life has no influence on it. So the faithful had to lead a good life and hope that they were the chosen ones to go to Heaven after death.
one of the three major groups of Christianity which was formed in the 16th century as it separated from Catholicism. The essential idea in all Protestant denominations is that salvation can be gained by faith alone (Sola Fide) and the Bible is the sole authority.
a Catholic religious order formed in 1534 by Ignatius of Loyola as part of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Their purpose was to found Catholic educational institutions, increase intellectual research, cultural pursuit and missionary efforts. They spread around Europe and sought to raise the failing reputation of the Catholic Church amongst the people.
Council of Trent
a 16 century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church conveyed in Trent between 1545 and 1563 (in three periods of 25 sessions). The points of the council were to condemn Protestant beliefs, define the Church teachings and doctrine, as well as ways to spread the faith and fix corruption.
- a movement in the Catholic Church that began with the Council of Trent in 1545 and was meant to fix problems in the church and fight against the Protestant division. Many reforms to the Church doctrine were placed at the time and certain measures such as the creation of the Jesuits and the Inquisition were put into place.
The queen of England from 1558 until 1603. She established the English Protestant Church. Her reign is known as the Elizabethan era which helped the flourishing of the arts, especially theater in England.
Prince Henry the Navigator
he was a prince of the Kingdom of Portugal that is known for forming one of the first sailing schools and revolutionizing maritime sailing and ships, which eventually led to the increase in European exploration and colonization.
Africans were enslaved by Europeans in massive amounts and shipped to America for cheap labor. The slaves were treated like animals and were regarded as property rather than human beings. This became the central component of the Triangular Trade and the Columbian Exchange.