BIO203 - MIDTERM

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MICROBIOLOGY

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? K

Koch - aseptic surgery

Which of the following is a scientific name?

Streptococcus pyogenes

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? I

Immunologist - studies ecology of Legionella pneumophila

Which of the following statements about fungi is true?

All are plants.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? N

Normal microbiota - harmful

Who proved that microorganisms cause disease?

Koch

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? V

van Leeuwenhoek - germ theory

Which of the following requirements was NOT necessary for Pasteur to disprove spontaneous generation?

Identifying bacteria

Regarding Pasteur's experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is true?

Any possibility of contamination was removed.
There was air involved.
There was a food source involved.
All microorganisms were killed before beginning.

Which of the following statements about the atom 12/6 C is false?

It has 12 neutrons in its nucleus

Which of the following statements is false?

Water molecules are formed by hydrolysis.

Which of the following is the type of bond holding K+ and I- ions in KI?

Ionic bond

Which of the following is the type of bond between molecules of water in a beaker of water?

Hydrogen bond

What is the type of bond holding hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the H2O molecule?

Covalent bond

Identify the following reaction: Glucose + Fructose → Sucrose + Water

Dehydration synthesis reaction

Identify the following reaction: Lactose + H2O → Glucose + Galactose

Hydrolysis reaction

Which type of molecule contains the alcohol glycerol?

Lipid

Identify the following reaction: H20+CO2 ⇌ H2CO3

Hydrolysis reaction

Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids?

Protein

Which type of molecule contains -NH2 groups?

Protein

What structure does light pass through after leaving the condenser in a compound light microscope?

Specimen

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? G

Gram-negative bacteria - negative stain

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? S

Safranin - acid dye

Which type of molecule is composed of (CH2O) units?

Carbohydrate

What do genes consist of?

Nucleic acids

Which are the primary molecules making up plasma membranes in cells?

Lipids

Identify the following reaction: NH4OH ⇌ NH3 + H2O

Reversible reaction

The counterstain in the acid-fast stain is

A basic dye.

The purpose of a mordant in the Gram stain is

To prevent the crystal violet from leaving the cells.

Place the following steps in the correct sequence:
1-Staining; 2-Making a smear; 3-Fixing.

2-3-1

In this microscope, the observer does NOT look at an image through a lens.

Electron microscope

Place the steps of the Gram stain in the correct order:
1-Alcohol-acetone; 2-Crystal violet; 3-Safranin; 4-Iodine.

2-4-1-3

In Figure 3.1, line "a." points to the microscope's

Ocular lens

In Figure 3.1, line "b." points to the microscope's

Objective lens.

The appearance of gram-negative bacteria after addition of the decolorizing agent in the Gram stain.

Colorless

The appearance of gram-negative bacteria after completing the Gram stain.

Red

Which of the following is NOT a distinguishing characteristic of prokaryotic cells?

They lack a plasma membrane.

The best definition of osmotic pressure is

The force with which a solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane from a higher to a lower concentration.

By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?

Active transport

Which of the following statements about viruses is false?

They have both DNA and RNA.

Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is a tetrad?

B

Which drawing in Figure 4.1 possesses an axial filament?

A

Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is streptococci?

D

Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is a bacillius?

C

Which of the following structures is NOT found in prokaryotic cells?

Cilium

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is a gram-negative cell wall?

B

Which microscope achieves the highest magnification and greatest resolution?

Electron microscope

Which of the following is NOT a chemical component of a bacterial cell wall?

Cellulose

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is a toxic cell wall?

B

Which of the following terms best describes the cell in Figure 4.2?

Lophotrichous flagella

Simple staining is often necessary to improve contrast in this microscope.

Compound light microscope

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall has a wall that protects against osmotic lysis?

Both a and b

Assume you stain Bacillus by applying malachite green with heat and then counterstaining with safranin. Through the microscope, the green structures are then counter-stained with safranin. Through the microscope, the green structures are :

Endospores.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

Centrosome - food storage

What Gram reaction do you expect from acid-fast bacteria?

Gram-positive

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by acetone-alcohol?

B

The purpose of the ocular lens is to

Magnify the image from the objective lens.

The resolution of a microscope can be improved by changing the

Wavelength of light.

Which microscope is most useful for visualizing a biofilm?

Scanning acoustic microscope

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics (e.g., penicillin)?

B

Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?

Mitochondrion

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains teichoic acids?

A

You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can safely assume that the cell

Has a cell wall.

In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains porins?

B

In Figure 6.2, which section shows a growth phase where the number of cells dying equals the number of cells dividing?

C

In Figure 6.2, which sections of the graph illustrate a logarithmic change in cell numbers?

B & D

Most bacteria grow best at pH

7

During which growth phase will gram-positive bacteria be most susceptible to penicillin?

Log phase

Which of the following is an advantage of the direct microscopic count?

Requires no incubation time

Which of the following is NOT a direct method to measure microbial growth?

Metabolic activity

Which of the following statements is false?

DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome.

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? T

Thermophile - growth at 37°C

In Figure 6.4, in which tube are microaerophiles growing?

E

In Figure 6.4, in which tube are facultative anaerobes growing?

B

Which enzyme catalyzes the reaction: O2- + O2- + 2H+ → H2O2 + O2?

Superoxide dismutase

A culture medium on which only gram-positive organisms grow and a yellow halo surrounds Staphylococcus aureus colonies is called a(n)

Selective medium & Differential medium

The initial effect of ionizing radiation on a cell is that it causes

The formation of highly reactive ions.

A culture medium consisting of agar, human blood, and beef heart is a

Complex medium.

Which of the following is the best definition of generation time?

The length of time needed for a cell to divide

Which group of microorganisms is most likely to spoil a freshwater trout preserved with salt?

Facultative halophiles

Which of the following is the best method to sterilize heat-labile solutions?

Membrane filtration

Which of the following does NOT achieve sterilization?

Pasteurization

Which of the following is NOT used to disinfect water?

Heat

Which of the following substances is NOT effective against nonenveloped viruses?

Alcohol

If you were preparing nutrient agar at home and didn't have an autoclave, what could you use to sterilize the nutrient agar

Pressure cooker at 121°C for 15 minutes

Which of the following pairs is mismatched? R

RNA polymerase - makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template

DNA is constructed of

Two strands of nucleotides running antiparallel.

Which of the following is NOT a product of transcription?

A new strand of DNA

Genetic change in bacteria can be brought about by

Conjugation.Transformation. Mutation. Transduction.

If the sequence of amino acids encoded by a strand of DNA is serine-alanine-lysine-leucine, what is the order of bases in the sense strand of DNA?

AGACGTTTCAAT

If the sequence of amino acids encoded by a strand of DNA is serine-alanine-lysine-leucine, the coding for the antisense strand of DNA is

TCTGCAAAGTTA

The anticodon for valine is

CAA

What is the sequence of amino acids encoded by the following sequence of bases in a strand of DNA?

ATTACGCTTTGC

Leucine-arginine-lysine-alanine

If a frameshift mutation occurred in the sequence of bases shown below, what would be the sequence of amino acids coded for?

ATTACGCTTTGC

Can't tell

An enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.

Restriction enzyme

In transcription,

DNA is copied to RNA.

The reaction catalyzed by DNA polymerase is

DNA → DNA

Which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA: GCATGGATCCCAATGC?

Enzyme Recognition
BamHI G↓GATCC
CCCTAG↑G

Which enzyme does NOT make sticky ends?

Enzyme Recognition
HaeIII GG↓CC
CC↑GG

A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

Clone.

Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a

Vector.

Which of the following statements about the members of the Kingdom Animalia is false?

They can photosynthesize.

A genus can best be defined as

A taxon composed of one or more species and below family

Bacteria and archaea are similar in which of the following?

Possessing prokaryotic cells

Which of the following best defines a strain?

A group of cells all derived from a single parent

Serological testing is based on the fact that

Antibodies react specifically with an antigen.

Phage typing is based on the fact that

Bacterial viruses attack specific cells.

Organism A has 70 moles % G+C, and organism B has 40 moles % G+C. Which of the following can be concluded from these data?

The two organisms are unrelated.

Nucleic acid hybridization is based on the fact that

Pairing between complementary bases occurs.

A clone is

Genetically identical cells derived from a single cell.

You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan. You suspect the organism is in the group

Archaea.

Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?

Animalia

Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a

Library.

In Figure 9.2, the enzyme in step 1 is

RNA polymerase.

In Figure 9.2, the enzyme in step 2 is

Reverse transcriptase.

To see the results of your work through an objective lens, you need to use

Southern blotting.

A restriction fragment is

A segment of DNA.

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